agio-20240331
2024Q1FALSE000143922212/3100014392222024-01-012024-03-3100014392222024-04-26xbrli:shares00014392222024-03-31iso4217:USD00014392222023-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares0001439222us-gaap:ProductMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:ProductMember2023-01-012023-03-3100014392222023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CommonStockMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CommonStockMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001439222us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001439222us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310001439222us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001439222us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2022-12-3100014392222022-12-310001439222us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-03-310001439222us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-03-310001439222us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-03-310001439222us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-03-310001439222us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2023-03-3100014392222023-03-310001439222agio:AlnylamPharmaceuticalsIncMember2023-01-012023-12-310001439222agio:AgiosOncologyBusinessMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMember2021-03-312021-03-310001439222agio:AgiosOncologyBusinessMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMember2021-03-310001439222country:USagio:TIBSOVOMemberagio:AgiosOncologyBusinessMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMember2021-03-312021-03-31xbrli:pure0001439222country:USagio:VorasidenibMemberagio:AgiosOncologyBusinessMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMember2021-03-312021-03-310001439222agio:Agreement2010Member2021-03-310001439222country:USagio:TIBSOVOMemberagio:AgiosOncologyBusinessMemberus-gaap:DiscontinuedOperationsDisposedOfBySaleMember2022-01-012022-12-310001439222us-gaap:CashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CertificatesOfDepositMemberagio:CurrentAssetMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberagio:CurrentAssetMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberagio:CurrentAssetMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberagio:CurrentAssetMember2024-03-310001439222agio:CurrentAssetMember2024-03-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2024-03-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2024-03-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2024-03-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMember2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberagio:CurrentAssetMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberagio:CurrentAssetMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberagio:CurrentAssetMember2023-12-310001439222agio:CurrentAssetMember2023-12-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2023-12-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310001439222agio:NonCurrentAssetsMember2023-12-31agio:security0001439222us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2024-03-310001439222agio:ThirtyEightSydneyStreetLeaseMember2021-08-31utr:sqft0001439222agio:SixtyFourSydneyStreetLeaseMember2022-04-300001439222agio:SixtyFourSydneyStreetLeaseMember2023-05-310001439222agio:TwoThousandSevenStockIncentivePlanAndTwoThousandThirteenStockIncentivePlanMember2024-03-310001439222agio:TwoThousandAndThirteenStockIncentivePlanMember2024-03-310001439222agio:TwoThousandAndThirteenStockIncentivePlanMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-310001439222us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2024-03-310001439222agio:PerformanceStockUnitMember2023-12-310001439222agio:PerformanceStockUnitMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222agio:PerformanceStockUnitMember2024-03-310001439222agio:MarketBasedStockUnitsMember2023-12-310001439222agio:MarketBasedStockUnitsMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222agio:MarketBasedStockUnitsMember2024-03-310001439222agio:EmployeeStockPurchasePlan2013Member2024-01-012024-03-310001439222agio:EmployeeStockPurchasePlan2013Member2023-01-012023-03-310001439222agio:EmployeeStockPurchasePlan2013Member2024-03-310001439222us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222agio:EmployeePurchasePlanMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222agio:EmployeePurchasePlanMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-03-310001439222agio:EmployeePurchasePlanMember2024-01-012024-03-310001439222agio:EmployeePurchasePlanMember2023-01-012023-03-31
Table of Contents    
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-36014
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware26-0662915
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
 Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
 Identification No.)
88 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts
02139
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(617649-8600
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, Par Value $0.001 per shareAGIONasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer☐  Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No    ☒
Number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value, outstanding on April 26, 2024: 56,772,966


Table of Contents    
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
FORM 10-Q
FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
No.
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1A.
Item 5.
Item 6.



Table of Contents    
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.        Financial Statements (Unaudited)
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$118,764 $88,205 
Marketable securities479,227 688,723 
Accounts receivable, net3,453 2,810 
Inventory 23,070 19,076 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets39,113 35,021 
Total current assets663,627 833,835 
Marketable securities116,301 29,435 
Operating lease assets51,606 54,409 
Property and equipment, net14,119 15,382 
Other non-current assets4,056 4,057 
Total assets$849,709 $937,118 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$11,155 $9,780 
Accrued expenses25,129 43,167 
Operating lease liabilities15,407 15,008 
Total current liabilities51,691 67,955 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion52,940 56,988 
Other non-current liabilities1,156 1,156 
Total liabilities105,787 126,099 
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 25,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 125,000,000 shares authorized; 72,967,922 shares issued and 56,751,511 shares outstanding at March 31, 2024, and 72,161,489 shares issued and 55,945,078 shares outstanding at December 31, 2023
73 72 
Additional paid-in capital2,451,620 2,436,523 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(1,087)(441)
Treasury stock, at cost (16,216,411 shares at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023)
(802,486)(802,486)
Accumulated deficit(904,198)(822,649)
Total stockholders’ equity743,922 811,019 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$849,709 $937,118 
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
1

Table of Contents    
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
20242023
Revenues:
Product revenue, net$8,189 $5,609 
Total revenue8,189 5,609 
Operating expenses:
Cost of sales$627 $554 
Research and development68,620 67,301 
Selling, general and administrative31,014 28,367 
Total operating expenses100,261 96,222 
Loss from operations(92,072)(90,613)
Interest income, net8,889 8,091 
Other income, net1,634 1,504 
Net loss$(81,549)$(81,018)
Net loss per share - basic and diluted$(1.45)$(1.47)
Weighted-average number of common shares used in computing net loss per share – basic and diluted56,383,475 55,265,390 
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
2

Table of Contents    
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)
20242023
Net loss$(81,549)$(81,018)
Other comprehensive (loss) income
Unrealized (loss) gain on available-for-sale securities(646)4,124 
Comprehensive loss$(82,195)$(76,894)
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

3

Table of Contents    
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity
(Unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Treasury StockTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
(in thousands, except share amounts)SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202372,161,489 $72 $2,436,523 $(441)$(822,649)(16,216,411)$(802,486)$811,019 
Unrealized loss on available-for-sale securities— — — (646)— — — (646)
Common stock issued under stock incentive plan and ESPP806,433 1 5,863 — — — — 5,864 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 9,234 — — — — 9,234 
Net loss— — — — (81,549)— — (81,549)
Balance at March 31, 202472,967,922 $73 $2,451,620 $(1,087)$(904,198)(16,216,411)$(802,486)$743,922 
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
(Loss) Income
Accumulated
Deficit
Treasury StockTotal
Stockholders’
Equity
(in thousands, except share amounts)SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202271,256,118 $71 $2,386,325 $(12,535)$(470,561)(16,216,411)$(802,486)$1,100,814 
Unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities— — — 4,124 — — — 4,124 
Common stock issued under stock incentive plan and ESPP501,660 1 2,466 — — — — 2,467 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 10,139 — — — — 10,139 
Net loss— — — — (81,018)— — (81,018)
Balance at March 31, 202371,757,778 $72 $2,398,930 $(8,411)$(551,579)(16,216,411)$(802,486)$1,036,526 
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
4

Table of Contents    
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Operating activities
Net loss$(81,549)$(81,018)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss from operations to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization1,348 1,790 
Stock-based compensation expense9,234 10,139 
Net accretion of discount on marketable securities(2,527)(2,776)
Gain on disposal of property and equipment(39)(150)
Non-cash operating lease expense2,803 2,608 
Realized gain on investments(152) 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net(643)428 
Inventory(3,994)(2,882)
Prepaid expenses and other current and non-current assets(4,091)(348)
Accounts payable1,430 (9,796)
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities(18,038)(7,891)
Operating lease liabilities(3,649)(3,321)
Other non-current liabilities (1,966)
Net cash used in operating activities(99,867)(95,183)
Investing activities
Purchases of marketable securities(244,059)(128,351)
Proceeds from maturities and sales of marketable securities368,722 186,196 
Purchases of property and equipment(141)(399)
Proceeds from sale of equipment40 150 
Net cash provided by investing activities124,562 57,596 
Financing activities
Net proceeds from stock option exercises and employee stock purchase plan5,864 2,467 
Net cash provided by financing activities5,864 2,467 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents30,559 (35,120)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the period88,205 139,259 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of the period$118,764 $104,139 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing transactions
Net cash taxes (returned) paid$(525)$ 

See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
5

Table of Contents    
AGIOS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
1. Overview and Basis of Presentation
References to Agios
Throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, "Agios," "the company," “we,” “us,” and “our,” and similar expressions, except where the context requires otherwise, refer to Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and “our Board of Directors” refers to the board of directors of Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Overview
We are a biopharmaceutical company committed to transforming patients’ lives through leadership in the field of cellular metabolism, with the goal of creating differentiated medicines for rare diseases, with a focus on classical hematology. With a history of focused study on cellular metabolism, we have a deep and mature understanding of this biology, which is involved in the healthy functioning of nearly every system in the body. Building on this expertise, these learnings can be rapidly applied to our clinical trials with the goal of developing medicines that can have a significant impact for patients. We accelerate the impact of our portfolio by cultivating connections with patient communities, healthcare professionals, partners and colleagues to discover, develop and deliver potential therapies for rare diseases. We are located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The lead product candidate in our portfolio, PYRUKYND® (mitapivat), is an activator of both wild-type and mutant pyruvate kinase, or PK, enzymes for the potential treatment of hemolytic anemias. In February 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States. In November 2022, we received marketing authorization from the European Commission for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients in the European Union, or EU. In December 2022, we received marketing authorization in Great Britain for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients under the European Commission Decision Reliance Procedure. In addition, we are currently evaluating PYRUKYND® in clinical trials for the treatment of thalassemia, sickle cell disease, or SCD, and in pediatric patients with PK deficiency. We are also developing (i) AG-946, a novel PK activator, for the potential treatment of lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, or LR MDS, and hemolytic anemias, and (ii) AG-181, our phenylalanine hydroxylase, or PAH, stabilizer for the potential treatment of phenylketonuria, or PKU.

In addition to the aforementioned development programs, in July 2023 we entered into a license agreement with Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Alnylam, for the development and commercialization of products containing or comprised of an siRNA preclinical development candidate discovered by Alnylam and targeting the transmembrane serine protease 6, or TMPRSS6, gene, and we intend to pursue development of a licensed product for the potential disease-modifying treatment of patients with polycythemia vera, or PV, a rare blood disorder.

We are subject to risks common to companies in our industry including, but not limited to, uncertainties relating to conducting preclinical and clinical research and development, the manufacture and supply of products for clinical and commercial use, obtaining and maintaining regulatory approvals and pricing and reimbursement for our products, market acceptance, managing global growth and operating expenses, availability of additional capital, competition, obtaining and enforcing patents, stock price volatility, dependence on collaborative relationships and third-party service providers, dependence on key personnel, potential litigation, potential product liability claims and potential government investigations.
Alnylam License Agreement
On July 28, 2023, we entered into a license agreement with Alnylam under which we acquired the rights to develop and commercialize Alnylam’s novel preclinical siRNA targeting the TMPRSS6 gene, as a potential disease-modifying treatment for patients with PV. Because the acquired assets do not meet the definition of a business in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations, we accounted for the agreement as an asset acquisition.
In accordance with the license agreement, in the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, we made an up-front payment to Alnylam and recognized in-process research and development of $17.5 million. We will also pay Alnylam for certain expenses associated with the development of the TMPRSS6 gene and these will be recorded in our Consolidated Statements of Operations as incurred. Additionally, we are responsible to pay up to $130.0 million in potential development and regulatory milestones, in addition to sales milestones as well as tiered royalties on annual net sales, if any, of licensed products, which may be subject to specified reductions and offsets.
6

Table of Contents    
Sale of Oncology Business to Servier and Sale of Contingent Payments
On March 31, 2021, we completed the sale of our oncology business to Servier Pharmaceuticals, LLC, or Servier, which represented a discontinued operation. The transaction included the sale of our oncology business, including TIBSOVO®, our clinical-stage product candidates vorasidenib, AG-270 and AG-636, and our oncology research programs for a payment of approximately $1.8 billion in cash at the closing, subject to certain adjustments, and a payment of $200.0 million in cash, if, prior to January 1, 2027, vorasidenib is granted new drug application, or NDA, approval from the FDA with an approved label that permits vorasidenib’s use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 mutation (and, to the extent required by such approval, the vorasidenib companion diagnostic test is granted an FDA premarket approval), as well as a royalty of 5% of U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® from the close of the transaction through loss of exclusivity, and a royalty of 15% of U.S. net sales of vorasidenib from the first commercial sale of vorasidenib through loss of exclusivity, with these royalties referred to as contingent payments and recognized as income when realizable. Servier also acquired our co-commercialization rights for Bristol Myers Squibb’s IDHIFA® and the right to receive a $25.0 million potential milestone payment under our prior collaboration agreement with Celgene Corporation, or Celgene, and following the sale Servier will conduct certain clinical development activities within the IDHIFA® development program.
In October 2022, we sold our rights to future contingent payments associated with the royalty of 5% of U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® from the close of the transaction through the loss of exclusivity to entities affiliated with Sagard Healthcare Partners, or Sagard, and recognized income of $127.9 million within the gain on sale of contingent payments line item in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2022. We retain our rights to the potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if a new drug application for vorasidenib is approved by the FDA.
In February 2024, Servier announced that it received filing acceptance and priority review from the FDA for its NDA for vorasidenib for the treatment of certain IDH-mutant diffuse glioma and accelerated assessment from the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, for its Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, for vorasidenib. The FDA assigned the NDA a Prescription Drug User Fee Act action date of August 20, 2024, and Servier anticipates that the European Commission will approve its MAA in the second half of 2024.
Basis of Presentation
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024, the condensed consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss and stockholders' equity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, and the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are unaudited. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual financial statements and, in the opinion of our management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state our financial position as of March 31, 2024, our results of operations and stockholders' equity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. The financial data and the other financial information disclosed in these notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements related to the three-month periods are also unaudited. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2024 or for any other future annual or interim period. The condensed consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2023 was derived from our audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP. The condensed consolidated interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on February 15, 2024.
Our condensed consolidated financial statements include our accounts and the accounts of our wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that may affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, equity, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis we evaluate our estimates, judgments and methodologies. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity and the amount of revenues and expenses. The full extent to which the recent COVID-19 pandemic, or other pandemics or public health emergencies, may in the future directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, including expenses, reserves and allowances, clinical trials, research and development costs and employee-related amounts, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain.
7

Table of Contents    
Liquidity
As of March 31, 2024, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $714.3 million. Although we have incurred recurring losses and expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, we expect our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities to be sufficient to fund current operations for at least the next twelve months from the issuance of the financial statements. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market products or product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no material changes to the significant accounting policies previously disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting standards that have been issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board or other standards-setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on our financial statements upon adoption.
3. Fair Value Measurements
We record cash equivalents and marketable securities at fair value. Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, establishes a fair value hierarchy for those instruments measured at fair value that distinguishes between assumptions based on market data (observable inputs) and our own assumptions (unobservable inputs). The hierarchy consists of three levels:
Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs which are observable, directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs that reflect our own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date.
The following table summarizes our cash equivalents and marketable securities measured at fair value and by level on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2024:
(In thousands)Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Cash equivalents$21,530 $55,891 $ $77,421 
Total cash equivalents21,530 55,891  77,421 
Marketable securities:
Certificates of deposit$ $11,381 $ $11,381 
U.S. Treasuries 112,455  112,455 
Government securities 174,624  174,624 
Corporate debt securities 297,068  297,068 
Total marketable securities 595,528  595,528 
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities$21,530 $651,419 $ $672,949 
Cash equivalents and marketable securities have been initially valued at the transaction price and are subsequently valued, at the end of each reporting period, utilizing third-party pricing services or other observable market data. The pricing services utilize industry standard valuation models, including both income and market-based approaches, and observable market inputs to determine value. After completing our validation procedures, we did not adjust or override any fair value measurements provided by the pricing services as of March 31, 2024.
There have been no changes to the valuation methods during the three months ended March 31, 2024, and we had no financial assets or liabilities that were classified as Level 3 at any point during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
4. Marketable Securities
Our marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale pursuant to ASC 320, Investments – Debt and Equity Securities, and are recorded at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive
8

Table of Contents    
loss in the condensed consolidated balance sheets and statements of stockholders’ equity, and a component of total comprehensive loss in the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss, until realized. Unrealized losses are evaluated for impairment under ASC 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, to determine if the impairment is credit-related or noncredit-related. Credit-related impairment is recognized as an allowance on the condensed consolidated balance sheets with a corresponding adjustment to earnings, and noncredit-related impairment is recognized in other comprehensive income, net of taxes. Realized gains and losses are included in investment income on a specific-identification basis. There were no material realized gains or losses on marketable securities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023.
Marketable securities at March 31, 2024 consisted of the following:
(In thousands)Amortized
Cost
Unrealized
Gains
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Current:
Certificates of deposit$11,384 $ $(3)$11,381 
U.S. Treasuries79,485 6 (17)79,474 
Government securities156,434 20 (454)156,000 
Corporate debt securities232,852 12 (492)232,372 
Total Current480,155 38 (966)479,227 
Non-current:
U.S. Treasuries32,989 6 (14)32,981 
Government securities18,684  (60)18,624 
Corporate debt securities64,787 33 (124)64,696 
Total Non-current116,460 39 (198)116,301 
Total marketable securities$596,615 $77 $(1,164)$595,528 
Marketable securities at December 31, 2023 consisted of the following:
(In thousands)Amortized
Cost
Unrealized
Gains
Unrealized
Losses
Fair
Value
Current:
U.S. Treasuries$30,876 $ $(56)$30,820 
Government securities247,460 194 (695)246,959 
Corporate debt securities411,045 874 (975)410,944 
Total Current689,381 1,068 (1,726)688,723 
Non-current:
U.S. Treasuries4,802 30  4,832 
Government securities9,986 75  10,061 
Corporate debt securities14,430 112  14,542 
Total Non-current29,218 217  29,435 
Total marketable securities$718,599 $1,285 $(1,726)$718,158 
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we held both current and non-current investments. Investments classified as current have maturities of less than one year. Investments classified as non-current are those that: (i) have a maturity of greater than one year, and (ii) we do not intend to liquidate within the next twelve months, although these funds are available for use and, therefore, are classified as available-for-sale.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we held 160 and 151 debt securities, respectively, that were in an unrealized loss position for less than one year. We did not record an allowance for credit losses as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 related to these securities. The aggregate fair value of debt securities in an unrealized loss position at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 was $490.1 million and $513.5 million, respectively. There were no individual securities that were in a significant unrealized loss position as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. We regularly review the securities in an unrealized loss position and evaluate the current expected credit loss by considering factors such as historical experience,
9

Table of Contents    
market data, issuer-specific factors, and current economic conditions. We do not consider these marketable securities to be impaired as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
5. Inventory
Inventory, which consists of commercial supply of PYRUKYND®, consisted of the following:
(In thousands)March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Raw materials$90 $51 
Work-in-process20,787 17,568 
Finished goods2,193 1,457 
Total inventory$23,070 $19,076 
6. Leases
Our building leases are comprised of office and laboratory space under non-cancelable operating leases. These lease agreements have remaining lease terms of approximately four years and contain various clauses for renewal at our option. The renewal options were not included in the calculation of the operating lease assets and the operating lease liabilities as the renewal options are not reasonably certain of being exercised. The lease agreements do not contain residual value guarantees.
The components of lease expense and other information related to leases were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Operating lease costs$3,807 $3,807 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of operating lease liabilities4,653 4,520 
We have not entered into any material short-term leases or financing leases as of March 31, 2024.
In arriving at the operating lease liabilities as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we applied the weighted-average incremental borrowing rate of 5.7% for both periods over a weighted-average remaining lease term of 3.9 and 4.2 years, respectively.
As of March 31, 2024, undiscounted minimum rental commitments under non-cancelable leases were as follows:
(In thousands)
Remaining 2024$12,488 
202519,507 
202620,151 
202720,755 
20283,479 
Undiscounted minimum rental commitments$76,380 
Interest(8,033)
Operating lease liabilities$68,347 
We provided our landlord a security deposit of $2.9 million as security for our leases, which is included within other non-current assets on our condensed consolidated balance sheet.
In August 2021, we entered into a long-term sublease agreement for 13,000 square feet of the office space at 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, with the term of the lease running through December 2024. In April 2022, we entered into a long-term sublease agreement for 27,000 square feet of the office space at 64 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, with the term of the lease running through April 2025. In May 2023, we entered into a long-term sublease agreement for 7,407 square feet of office space on the first floor of 64 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, with the term of the lease running through April 2025. We recorded operating sublease income of $1.6 million and $1.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, in other income, net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. We received security
10

Table of Contents    
deposits from our sublessees of approximately $1.2 million which is recorded within other non-current assets on our condensed consolidated balance sheet.

As of March 31, 2024, the future minimum lease payments to be received under the long-term sublease agreements were as follows:
(In thousands)
Remaining 2024$3,831 
20251,310 
Total$5,141 
7. Accrued Expenses
Accrued expenses consisted of the following:
(In thousands)March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Accrued compensation$5,403 $23,232 
Accrued research and development costs15,182 15,463 
Accrued professional fees2,737 3,115 
Accrued other1,807 1,357 
Total accrued expenses$25,129 $43,167 
8. Product Revenue
We sell PYRUKYND®, our wholly owned product, to a limited number of specialty distributors and specialty pharmacy providers, or collectively, the Customers. These Customers subsequently resell PYRUKYND® to pharmacies or dispense PYRUKYND® directly to patients. In addition to distribution agreements with Customers, we enter into arrangements with healthcare providers and payors that provide for government-mandated and/or privately-negotiated rebates, chargebacks and discounts with respect to the purchase of PYRUKYND®.
The performance obligation related to the sale of PYRUKYND® is satisfied and revenue is recognized when the Customer obtains control of the product, which occurs at a point in time, typically upon delivery to the Customer.
Product revenue, net, were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Product revenue, net$8,189 $5,609 
Reserves for Variable Consideration
Revenues from product sales are recorded at the net sales price, or transaction price, which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established and result from contractual adjustments, government rebates, returns and other allowances that are offered within the contracts with our Customers, healthcare providers, payors and other indirect customers relating to the sale of our products.
Contractual Adjustments
We generally provide Customers with discounts, including prompt pay discounts, and allowances that are explicitly stated in the contracts and are recorded as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized. In addition, we receive sales order management, data and distribution services from certain Customers.
Chargebacks and discounts represent the estimated obligations resulting from contractual commitments to sell products to qualified healthcare providers at prices lower than the list prices charged to Customers who directly purchase the product from us. Customers charge us for the difference between what they pay for the product and the ultimate selling price to the qualified healthcare providers. These reserves are estimated using the expected value method, based upon a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated channel mix and are established in the same period that the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue.
11

Table of Contents    
Government Rebates
Government rebates include Medicare, TriCare, and Medicaid rebates, which we estimate using the expected value method, based upon a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated payor mix. These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue. For Medicare, we also estimate the number of patients in the prescription drug coverage gap for whom we will owe an additional liability under the Medicare Part D program.
Returns / Replacement
We estimate the amount of product sales that may be returned by Customers or replaced by Agios and record this estimate as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized. We currently estimate product return and replacement liabilities using the expected value method, based on available industry data, including our visibility into the inventory remaining in the distribution channel.
The following table summarizes balances and activity in each of the product revenue allowance and reserve categories for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
(In thousands)Contractual AdjustmentsGovernment RebatesReturns/ ReplacementTotal
Balance at December 31, 2023$156 $1,084 $232 $1,472 
Current provisions relating to sales in the current year511 616 93 1,220 
Adjustments relating to prior years(40) 40  
Payments/returns relating to sales in the current year(427)  (427)
Payments/returns relating to sales in the prior years(79)(306) (385)
Balance at March 31, 2024$121 $1,394 $365 $1,880 
Total revenue-related reserves above, included in our condensed consolidated balance sheets, are summarized as follows:
(In thousands)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Reduction of accounts receivable$115 $151 
Component of accrued expenses 1,765 1,321 
Total revenue-related reserves$1,880 $1,472 
The following table presents changes in our contract assets during the three months ended March 31, 2024:
(In thousands)December 31, 2023AdditionsDeductionsMarch 31, 2024
Contract assets(1)
Accounts receivable, net$2,810 $9,409 $(8,766)$3,453 
(1) Additions to contract assets relate to amounts billed to Customers for product sales and deductions to contract assets primarily relate to collection of receivables during the reporting period.
9. Share-Based Payments
2023 Stock Incentive Plan and Inducement Grants
In June 2023, our stockholders approved the 2023 Stock Incentive Plan, or the 2023 Plan. The 2023 Plan provides for the grant of incentive stock options, nonstatutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, or RSUs, performance-based share units, or PSUs, and other stock-based awards to employees, advisors, consultants and non-employee directors.
Following the adoption of the 2023 Plan, we ceased granting equity awards under the 2013 Stock Incentive Plan, or the 2013 Plan. Any outstanding equity awards that were previously granted under the 2013 Plan continue to be governed by their terms. Following adoption of the 2013 Plan, we ceased granting equity awards under the 2007 Stock Incentive Plan, or the 2007 Plan. There are no outstanding equity awards under the 2007 Plan.
In connection with the start of employment of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer in 2022, and our Chief Commercial Officer in 2023, our board of directors granted each of them equity awards in the form of stock options, RSUs and
12

Table of Contents    
PSUs, which awards were made outside our equity incentive plans as inducements material to their respective entry into employment with us in accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(c)(4).
As of March 31, 2024, the maximum number of shares reserved under the 2013 Plan, the 2023 Plan and the inducement grants described above was 11,250,432, and we had 3,076,274 shares available for future issuance under the 2023 Plan.
Stock options
The following table presents stock option activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
Number of
Stock Options
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price
Outstanding at December 31, 20235,263,681 $44.94 
Granted808,415 32.20 
Exercised(148,626)31.04 
Cancelled/Forfeited(9,357)41.86 
Expired(5,250)26.15 
Outstanding at March 31, 20245,908,863 $43.56 
Exercisable at March 31, 20243,475,385 $52.67 
Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 20245,908,863 $43.56 
At March 31, 2024, there was approximately $38.0 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested stock option awards, which we expect to recognize over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.86 years.
Restricted stock units
The following table presents RSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
Number of
Stock Units
Weighted-Average
Grant Date Fair 
Value
Unvested shares at December 31, 20231,346,701 $29.67 
Granted989,378 30.91 
Vested(460,470)33.54 
Forfeited(10,424)29.75 
Unvested shares at March 31, 20241,865,185 $29.37 
As of March 31, 2024, there was approximately $47.9 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to RSUs, which we expect to recognize over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.33 years.
Performance-based stock units
The following table presents PSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
Number of
Stock Units
Weighted-Average
Grant Date Fair 
Value
Unvested shares at December 31, 2023362,133 $30.66 
Granted183,000 32.27 
Vested(145,023)36.04 
Unvested shares at March 31, 2024400,110 $29.45 
Stock-based compensation expense associated with these PSUs is recognized if the underlying performance condition is considered probable of achievement using our management’s best estimates.
As of March 31, 2024, there was no unrecognized compensation expense related to PSUs with performance-based vesting criteria that are considered probable of achievement, and $11.8 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to PSUs with performance-based vesting criteria that are considered not probable of achievement.
13

Table of Contents    
Market-based stock units
The following table presents market-based stock unit, or MSU, activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
Number of
Stock Units
Weighted-Average
Grant Date Fair
Value
Unvested shares at December 31, 202342,695 $41.50 
Expired(42,695)41.50 
Unvested shares at March 31, 2024 $ 
The fair value of MSUs are estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation model. Assumptions and estimates utilized in the model include the risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, expected stock volatility and the estimated period to achievement of the market condition. As of March 31, 2024, there was no remaining unrecognized compensation expense related to MSUs.
2013 Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In June 2013, our Board of Directors adopted, and in July 2013 our stockholders approved, the 2013 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the 2013 ESPP. We issued and sold 52,514 and 54,867 shares of common stock during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, under the 2013 ESPP. The 2013 ESPP provides participating employees with the opportunity to purchase up to an aggregate of 2,363,636 shares of our common stock. As of March 31, 2024, we had 1,633,525 shares of common stock available for future issuance under the 2013 ESPP.
Stock-based compensation expense
Stock-based compensation expense by award type included within the condensed consolidated statements of operations is as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Stock options$4,071 $4,957 
Restricted stock units4,966 4,947 
Employee stock purchase plan197 235 
Total stock-based compensation expense$9,234 $10,139 

Expenses related to stock options and stock-based awards were allocated as follows in the condensed consolidated statements of operations:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Research and development expense$3,775 $4,355 
Selling, general and administrative expense5,459 5,784 
Total stock-based compensation expense$9,234 $10,139 
10. Loss per Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by adjusting the weighted-average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury stock method. For purposes of the dilutive net loss per share calculation, stock options, RSUs, PSUs and MSUs for which the performance and market vesting conditions, respectively, have been deemed probable, and 2013 ESPP shares are considered to be common stock equivalents, while PSUs and MSUs with performance and market vesting conditions, respectively, that were not deemed probable as of March 31, 2024 are not considered to be common stock equivalents.
We utilize the control number concept in the computation of diluted earnings per share to determine whether potential common stock equivalents are dilutive. The control number used is net loss from continuing operations. The control number concept requires that the same number of potentially dilutive securities applied in computing diluted earnings per share from continuing operations be applied to all other categories of income or loss, regardless of their anti-dilutive effect on such categories. Since
14

Table of Contents    
we had a net loss for all periods presented, no dilutive effect has been recognized in the calculation of loss per share. Basic and diluted net loss per share was the same for all periods presented.
The following common stock equivalents were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders for the periods indicated because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Stock options5,908,863 5,969,886 
Restricted stock units1,865,185 1,531,802 
Employee stock purchase plan shares11,016 14,143 
Total common stock equivalents7,785,064 7,515,831 

15

Table of Contents    
Item 2.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-looking Information
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2024 and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, and related notes included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as the audited consolidated financial statements and notes and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 filed with the SEC on February 15, 2024. This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections, and the beliefs and assumptions of our management, and include, without limitation, statements with respect to our expectations regarding our research, development and commercialization plans and prospects, results of operations, selling, general and administrative expenses, research and development expenses, and the sufficiency of our cash for future operations. Words such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” “vision,” “will,” “would” or the negatives of these words and similar expressions are intended to identify these forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Readers are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. Among the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements are those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A and elsewhere in this report, and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. We undertake no obligation to revise the forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law.
Overview
We are a biopharmaceutical company committed to transforming patients’ lives through leadership in the field of cellular metabolism, with the goal of creating differentiated medicines for rare diseases, with a focus on classical hematology. With a history of focused study on cellular metabolism, we have a deep and mature understanding of this biology, which is involved in the healthy functioning of nearly every system in the body. Building on this expertise, these learnings can be rapidly applied to our clinical trials with the goal of developing medicines that can have a significant impact for patients. We accelerate the impact of our portfolio by cultivating connections with patient communities, healthcare professionals, partners and colleagues to discover, develop and deliver potential therapies for rare diseases.
The lead product candidate in our portfolio, PYRUKYND® (mitapivat), is an activator of both wild-type and mutant pyruvate kinase, or PK, enzymes for the potential treatment of hemolytic anemias. In February 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States. In November 2022, we received marketing authorization from the European Commission for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients in the European Union, or EU. In December 2022, we received marketing authorization in Great Britain for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients under the European Commission Decision Reliance Procedure. In addition, we are currently evaluating PYRUKYND® in clinical trials for the treatment of thalassemia, sickle cell disease, or SCD, and in pediatric patients with PK deficiency. We are also developing (i) AG-946, a novel PK activator, for the potential treatment of lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, or LR MDS, and hemolytic anemias, and (ii) AG-181, our phenylalanine hydroxylase, or PAH, stabilizer for the potential treatment of phenylketonuria, or PKU.

In addition to the aforementioned development programs, in July 2023 we entered into a license agreement with Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Alnylam, for the development and commercialization of products containing or comprised of an siRNA preclinical development candidate discovered by Alnylam and targeting the transmembrane serine protease 6, or TMPRSS6, gene, and we intend to pursue development of a licensed product for the potential disease-modifying treatment of patients with polycythemia vera, or PV, a rare blood disorder.
Alnylam License Agreement
In accordance with the license agreement with Alnylam, in the year ended December 31, 2023, we made an up-front payment to Alnylam and recognized in-process research and development of $17.5 million. We will also pay Alnylam for certain expenses associated with the development of the TMPRSS6 gene and these will be recorded in our Consolidated Statements of Operations as incurred. Additionally, we are responsible to pay up to $130.0 million in potential development and regulatory milestones, in addition to sales milestones as well as tiered royalties on annual net sales, if any, of licensed products, which may
16

Table of Contents    
be subject to specified reductions and offsets. Because the acquired assets under the license agreement with Alnylam do not meet the definition of a business in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations, we accounted for the agreement as an asset acquisition.
Sale of our Oncology Business to Servier
On March 31, 2021, we completed the sale of our oncology business to Servier Pharmaceuticals, LLC, or Servier, which represented a discontinued operation. The transaction included the sale of our oncology business, including TIBSOVO®, our clinical-stage product candidates vorasidenib, AG-270 and AG-636, and our oncology research programs for a payment of approximately $1.8 billion in cash at the closing, subject to certain adjustments, and a payment of $200.0 million in cash, if, prior to January 1, 2027, vorasidenib is granted new drug application, or NDA, approval from the FDA with an approved label that permits vorasidenib’s use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an isocitrate dehydrogenase, or IDH, 1 or 2 mutation (and, to the extent required by such approval, the vorasidenib companion diagnostic test is granted an FDA premarket approval), as well as a royalty of 5% of U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® from the close of the transaction through loss of exclusivity, and a royalty of 15% of U.S. net sales of vorasidenib from the first commercial sale of vorasidenib through loss of exclusivity, with these royalties referred to as contingent payments and recognized as income when realizable. Servier also acquired our co-commercialization rights for Bristol Myers Squibb’s IDHIFA® and the right to receive a $25.0 million potential milestone payment under our prior collaboration agreement with Celgene Corporation, or Celgene, and following the sale Servier will conduct certain clinical development activities within the IDHIFA® development program.
In October 2022, we sold our rights to future contingent payments associated with the royalty of 5% of U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® from the close of the transaction through the loss of exclusivity to entities affiliated with Sagard Healthcare Partners, or Sagard, and recognized income of $127.9 million within the gain on sale of contingent payments line item in our consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022. We retain our rights to the potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if an NDA for vorasidenib is approved by the FDA.
In February 2024, Servier announced that it received filing acceptance and priority review from the FDA for its NDA for vorasidenib for the treatment of certain IDH-mutant diffuse glioma and accelerated assessment from the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, for its Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, for vorasidenib. The FDA assigned the NDA a Prescription Drug User Fee Act action date of August 20, 2024, and Servier anticipates that the European Commission will approve its MAA in the second half of 2024.
Financial Operations Overview
General
Since inception, our operations have primarily focused on organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, assembling our core capabilities in cellular metabolism and classical hematology, identifying potential product candidates, undertaking preclinical studies, conducting clinical trials, establishing a commercial infrastructure, preparing for and executing on the commercial launch of PYRUKYND® and, prior to the sale of our oncology business to Servier on March 31, 2021, marketing TIBSOVO® and IDHIFA®. Through March 31, 2021, we financed our operations primarily through proceeds from the sale of our royalty rights, commercial sales of TIBSOVO®, funding received from our collaboration agreements, private placements of our preferred stock, our initial public offering of our common stock and concurrent private placement of common stock to an affiliate of Celgene, and our follow-on public offerings. Following the sale of our oncology business to Servier on March 31, 2021, we have financed and expect to continue to finance our operations primarily through cash on hand, royalty payments from Servier with respect to U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® prior to the sale of these contingent payments to Sagard, proceeds from the sale of contingent payments to Sagard, a potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if a NDA for vorasidenib is approved by the FDA with a label that permits vorasidenib's use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation, the actual and potential future sales of PYRUKYND® and, potentially, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other nondilutive strategic transactions. In addition, we may pursue opportunistic debt offerings, and equity or equity-linked offerings.
Additionally, since inception, we have historically incurred significant operating losses. Our net losses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were $81.5 million and $81.0 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, we had an accumulated deficit of $904.2 million. We expect to incur significant expenses and net losses until such time we are able to report profitable results. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from year to year. We expect that we will continue to incur significant expenses as we continue to advance and expand clinical development and commercialization activities for PYRUKYND®; advance and expand clinical development of AG-946; continue to advance AG-181, our PAH stabilizer; initiate preclinical development of a licensed siRNA development candidate pursuant to our license agreement with Alnylam; expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio, including by in-licensing or acquiring assets for pipeline growth; and hire additional commercial and development personnel.
17

Table of Contents    
Revenues
Our wholly owned product, PYRUKYND®, received approval from the FDA on February 17, 2022, for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States. Upon FDA approval of PYRUKYND® in the United States, we began generating product revenue from sales of PYRUKYND®. We sell PYRUKYND® to a limited number of specialty distributors and specialty pharmacy providers, or collectively, the Customers. These Customers subsequently resell PYRUKYND® to pharmacies or dispense PYRUKYND® directly to patients. In addition to distribution agreements with Customers, we enter into arrangements with healthcare providers and payors that provide for government-mandated and/or privately-negotiated rebates, chargebacks and discounts with respect to the purchase of PYRUKYND®. For further discussion of our revenue recognition policy, see Note 8, Product Revenue, to the condensed consolidated financial statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

In the future, we expect to continue to generate revenue from product sales, and we may potentially generate revenue from royalties on product sales, milestone payments, and upfront payments under existing arrangements or future collaborations or licensing agreements.

Cost of Sales
Cost of sales consists primarily of manufacturing costs for sales of PYRUKYND®. Based on our policy to expense costs associated with the manufacturing of our products prior to regulatory approval, certain of the manufacturing costs associated with product shipments of PYRUKYND® recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were expensed prior to February 17, 2022, and, therefore, are not included in costs of sales during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

Research and Development Expenses
Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect research and development costs related to our portfolio to increase as our product candidate development programs progress. However, the successful development of our product candidates is highly uncertain. As such, at this time, we cannot reasonably estimate or know the nature, timing and estimated costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the remainder of the development and to commercialize these product candidates. We are unable to predict the amount of net cash inflows from PYRUKYND® or any of our product candidates. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing medicines, including the uncertainty of:
establishing an appropriate safety profile with an investigational new drug application, or IND, and/or NDA-enabling toxicology and clinical trials;
successfully enrolling in, and completion of, clinical trials;
receiving marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
establishing compliant commercial manufacturing capabilities or making arrangements with third-party manufacturers;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;
launching commercial sales of the products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others; and
maintaining an acceptable safety profile of the products following approval.
A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of any of our product candidates would significantly change the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate.
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our drug discovery efforts, and the development of our product candidates, which include:
employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense;
expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including contract research organizations, or CROs, that conduct research and development and both preclinical and clinical activities on our behalf, and the cost of consultants;
the cost of lab supplies and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical and clinical study materials; and
facilities, depreciation, and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and the maintenance of facilities, insurance and other operating costs.
18

Table of Contents    
The following summarizes our most advanced programs:
PYRUKYND® (mitapivat): First-in-Class PK Activator
We are developing PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency and other hemolytic anemias such as thalassemia and SCD. PYRUKYND® is an orally available small molecule and a potent activator of the wild-type and mutated PK enzymes.
In February 2022, the FDA approved PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States. In November 2022, we received marketing authorization from the European Commission for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients in the EU. In December 2022, we received marketing authorization in Great Britain for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients under the European Commission Decision Reliance Procedure. In addition, we are currently evaluating PYRUKYND® in clinical trials for the treatment of thalassemia, SCD, and in pediatric patients with PK deficiency. We have worldwide development and commercial rights to PYRUKYND® and expect to fund the future development and commercialization costs related to this program. PYRUKYND® has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of PK deficiency by the FDA and the EMA. Additionally, PYRUKYND® has received orphan drug designation from the FDA for the treatment of thalassemia and SCD.
We have built our commercial infrastructure to support the commercial launch of PYRUKYND® in adult PK deficiency in the United States. In connection with our regulatory approvals in the EU and Great Britain, we are currently providing access to PYRUKYND® on a free of charge basis for eligible patients in those jurisdictions through a global managed access program. We provide access to PYRUKYND® for adult patients with PK deficiency in other jurisdictions upon request through the global managed access program, on either a free of charge or for charge basis. Beyond the global managed access program, we continue to evaluate options for the commercialization of PYRUKYND® outside of the United States, including through exploring potential partnership opportunities.
We are evaluating PYRUKYND® in the following clinical trials:
An extension study evaluating the long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of treatment with PYRUKYND® in patients from ENERGIZE, our completed phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study pivotal trial of PYRUKYND® in adults with non-transfusion-dependent alpha- or beta-thalassemia. We announced topline data for ENERGIZE in January 2024. A total of 194 patients were enrolled in the study, with 130 randomized to PYRUKYND® 100 mg twice-daily, and 64 randomized to matched placebo. 122 patients (93.8%) in the PYRUKYND® arm and 62 patients (96.9%) in the placebo arm completed the 24-week double-blind period of the study. The study met the primary endpoint of hemoglobin response, where treatment with PYRUKYND® demonstrated a statistically significant increase in hemoglobin response compared to placebo, as 42.3% of patients in the PYRUKYND® arm achieved a hemoglobin response, compared to 1.6% of patients in the placebo arm (2-sided p<0.0001). Treatment with PYRUKYND® also demonstrated statistically significant improvements compared to placebo for both key secondary endpoints: (i) change from baseline in average Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, or FACIT-Fatigue, subscale score from week 12 to week 24 and (ii) change from baseline in average hemoglobin concentration from week 12 to week 24. During the 24-week double-blind period, four (3.1%) subjects in the PYRUKYND® arm experienced adverse events, or AEs, leading to discontinuation, and there were no AEs in the placebo arm leading to discontinuation. We plan to provide a more detailed analysis of the data from this trial at an upcoming medical meeting and we aim to submit an NDA for PYRUKYND® in thalassemia to the FDA by the end of 2024.
ENERGIZE-T, a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study evaluating the efficacy and safety of PYRUKYND® as a potential treatment for adults with transfusion-dependent alpha- or beta-thalassemia, defined as 6 to 20 red blood cell, or RBC, units transfused and ≤ six-week transfusion-free period during the 24-week period before randomization. The primary endpoint of the trial is percentage of patients with transfusion reduction response, defined as a ≥50% reduction in transfused RBC units with a reduction of ≥2 units of transfused RBCs in any consecutive 12-week period through week 48 compared with baseline. Secondary endpoints include additional transfusion reduction measures and percentage of participants with transfusion-independence. This trial has completed enrollment and we plan to announce topline data from this trial in the second quarter of 2024.
RISE UP, a phase 2/3 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of PYRUKYND® in SCD patients who are 16 years of age or older, have had between two and 10 sickle cell pain crises in the past 12 months, and have hemoglobin within the range of 5.5 to 10.5 g/dL during screening. We enrolled 79 patients in the phase 2 portion of the trial, with 26 patients in the 50 mg twice daily mitapivat arm, 26 patients in the 100 mg twice daily mitapivat arm and 27 patients in the placebo arm. The primary endpoints of the phase 2 portion of the trial were hemoglobin response, defined as ≥ 1 g/dL increase in average hemoglobin concentration from week 10 to week 12 compared to baseline, and safety. In June 2023, we announced the phase 2 portion of this trial had achieved its primary endpoint of hemoglobin response in patients in both 50 mg and 100 mg twice daily mitapivat arms. 46.2% of patients (n=12) in the 50 mg twice daily mitapivat arm and 50.0% of patients (n=13) in the 100 mg twice daily mitapivat arm achieved a hemoglobin response, compared to 3.7% of
19

Table of Contents    
patients (n=1) in the placebo arm (2-sided p=0.0003 and 0.0001, respectively). In December 2023, we announced the following additional results of the phase 2 portion of the trial: (i) the least-squares mean (95% confidence interval) for average change from baseline in hemoglobin levels, from week 10 through week 12, for patients in the 50 mg twice daily mitapivat, 100 mg twice daily mitapivat, and placebo arms, respectively, was 1.11 (0.77, 1.45) g/dL, 1.13 (0.79, 1.47) g/dL, and 0.05 (−0.28, 0.39) g/dL; (ii) we observed improvements in annualized rates of sickle cell pain crises as the annualized rate of sickle cell pain crises (95% confidence interval) for patients in the 50 mg twice daily and 100 mg twice daily mitapivat arms, respectively, was 0.83 (0.34, 1.99) and 0.51 (0.16, 1.59), compared to 1.71 (0.95, 3.08) for patients in the placebo arm; (iii) we observed improvement in patient-reported fatigue scores in the 50 mg twice daily mitapivat arm compared to the placebo arm, and the least-squares mean (95% confidence interval) for average changes from baseline in patient-reported fatigue score, from week 10 through week 12, for patients in the 50 mg twice daily mitapivat, 100 mg twice daily mitapivat, and placebo arms, respectively, was −3.80 (−7.16, −0.45), −0.10 (−3.27, 3.08), and −0.17 (−3.40, 3.07). The safety profile for mitapivat observed in the phase 2 portion of the trial was generally consistent with previously reported data in other studies of SCD and other hemolytic anemias. The most common treatment-emergent AEs in the 50 mg BID, 100 mg BID, and placebo arms, respectively, were: headache (n=6, 6, 7), arthralgia (n=3, 5, 9), dysmenorrhea (n=0, 3, 0), pain (n=3, 3, 2), pain in extremity (n=1, 3, 6), back pain (n=4, 2, 3), nausea (n=1, 2, 4), fatigue (n=4, 1, 5), and influenza-like illness (n=1, 1, 3). There were no serious treatment-emergent adverse events, or TEAEs, attributed to mitapivat and there were no AEs leading to drug reduction, discontinuation, interruption or death in either the mitapivat or the placebo arms. Of the 79 patients enrolled in the study, 73 continued into the Phase 2 open-label extension period. In October 2023, we enrolled the first patient in the phase 3 portion of this trial. The phase 3 portion includes a 52-week randomized, placebo-controlled period in which participants will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive the recommended (100 mg twice daily) PYRUKYND® dose level or the placebo. The primary endpoints are hemoglobin response, defined as ≥1 g/dL increase in average hemoglobin from baseline to week 52, and annualized rate of sickle cell pain crises. Participants who complete either the phase 2 or phase 3 portion will have the option to move into a 216-week open-label extension period to continue to receive PYRUKYND®. We anticipate completing enrollment by the end of 2024 and announcing topline data for this trial in 2025.
ACTIVATE-kids and ACTIVATE-kidsT, double-blind phase 3 studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of PYRUKYND® as a potential treatment for PK deficiency in not regularly transfused and regularly transfused patients between one and 18 years old, respectively. The primary endpoint of ACTIVATE-kids is percentage of patients with hemoglobin response, defined as ≥1.5 g/dL increase in hemoglobin concentration from baseline that is sustained at two or more scheduled assessments at weeks 12, 16, and 20 during the double-blind period. The primary endpoint of ACTIVATE-kidsT is transfusion reduction response, defined as ≥33% reduction in total RBC transfusion volume from week 9 through week 32 of the double-blind period. ACTIVATE-kidsT has completed enrollment and we expect to announce topline data for this trial by mid-2024. ACTIVATE-kids is currently enrolling patients, we expect to complete enrollment for this trial by mid-2024, and we anticipate announcing topline data for this trial in 2025.
An extension study evaluating the long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of treatment with PYRUKYND® in patients from ACTIVATE and ACTIVATE-T, our completed pivotal trials of PYRUKYND® in not regularly transfused and regularly transfused adult patients with PK deficiency.
An extension study evaluating the long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of treatment with PYRUKYND® in patients from DRIVE PK, our completed global phase 2, first-in-patient, open-label safety and efficacy clinical trial of PYRUKYND® in adult, not regularly transfused patients with PK deficiency.
An extension study evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of treatment with PYRUKYND® in patients from our completed phase 2, open-label safety and efficacy clinical trial of PYRUKYND® in adults with non-transfusion-dependent alpha- and beta-thalassemia.
In collaboration with the Company, the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, is evaluating PYRUKYND® in a phase 1 trial in patients with SCD pursuant to a cooperative research and development agreement. The core trial period has completed, and the long-term extension study is ongoing. In June 2020, clinical proof of concept was established based on a preliminary analysis of the data from this trial.
In collaboration with the Company, University Medical Center Utrecht, or UMC Utrecht, is evaluating PYRUKYND® in patients with SCD pursuant to an investigator sponsored trial agreement. The trial has completed enrollment and
20

Table of Contents    
patient follow-up is ongoing, and a 2-year extension study has been initiated for patients who complete the follow-up period.
AG-946: Novel PK Activator
We are developing AG-946, a novel PK activator, for the potential treatment of LR MDS and hemolytic anemias. We are evaluating AG-946 in a phase 1 trial of AG-946 in healthy volunteers and in patients with SCD. We have presented data from the healthy volunteer cohorts, and we have initiated the SCD patient cohort of this phase 1 trial.
We initiated a phase 2a clinical trial of AG-946 in adults with LR MDS in the third quarter of 2022, and the trial has completed enrollment with 22 patients, including 12 patients classified as non-transfused and 10 patients classified as low transfusion burden. Patients received 5 mg of AG-946 once daily for up to 16 weeks. The two primary endpoints of the trial were transfusion independence (for patients classified as low transfusion burden), defined as transfusion-free for ≥ eight consecutive weeks during the 16-week treatment period, and hemoglobin response, defined as a ≥ 1.5 g/dL increase from baseline in the average hemoglobin concentration measured from week 8 through week 16.
In November 2023, we announced that we achieved clinical proof-of-concept in the phase 2a portion of the trial. We observed that four of the 10 patients with low transfusion burden achieved the transfusion independence endpoint, and one of the 22 patients achieved the hemoglobin response endpoint in the 16-week treatment period. The safety profile observed was consistent with data reported in the healthy volunteer study of AG-946. 19 patients elected to enroll in the extension period for up to 156 weeks. We intend to complete a full evaluation of the phase 2a trial results and assess the impact on the phase 2b portion of the protocol in 2024. Based on the data generated in the Phase 2a study, we plan to increase the doses evaluated in the upcoming Phase 2b study, which we expect to initiate in mid-2024.
Other Programs
In addition to the aforementioned development programs, we are developing AG-181, a PAH stabilizer for the potential treatment of PKU, for which we filed an IND in December 2023. We initiated a phase 1 trial of AG-181 in healthy volunteers in the first quarter of 2024. Also, in July 2023, we entered into a license agreement with Alnylam for the development and commercialization of products containing or comprised of an siRNA preclinical development candidate discovered by Alnylam and targeting the TMPRSS6 gene, and we intend to pursue development of a licensed product for the potential treatment of patients with PV.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in executive, finance, business development, commercial, legal, information technology and human resources functions. Other significant costs include facility-related costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters, and fees for accounting and consulting services.
We anticipate that our selling, general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support continued research and development activities, and ongoing and future commercialization activities related to our portfolio, including the ongoing commercialization of PYRUKYND® and any of our other product candidates, which may include the hiring of additional personnel.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Our critical accounting estimates are those which require the most significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements. We have determined that our most critical accounting estimates are those relating to revenue recognition, accrued research and development expenses and stock-based compensation. As of March 31, 2024, there have been no material changes to our existing critical accounting estimates discussed in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
21

Table of Contents    
Results of Operations
Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023
Revenues
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Revenues:
Product revenue, net$8,189 $5,609 
Total revenue$8,189 $5,609 
Total Revenue - Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 vs. Three Months Ended March 31, 2023 – The increase in total revenue of $2.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 was due to increased product revenue associated with PYRUKYND®.
Total Operating Expenses
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Operating expenses:
Cost of sales$627 $554 
Research and development68,620 67,301 
Selling, general and administrative31,014 28,367 
Total operating expenses$100,261 $96,222 
Total Operating Expenses - Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 vs. Three Months Ended March 31, 2023 The increase in total operating expenses of $4.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 was primarily due to an increase in selling, general and administrative expenses of $2.6 million, driven by an increase in commercial-related activities as we prepare for the potential approval of PYRUKYND® in thalassemia, and an increase in research and development expenses of $1.3 million which is described below under Research and Development Expenses.
Research and Development Expenses
Our research and development expenses, by major program, are outlined in the table below:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
PK activator (PYRUKYND®)$26,036 $20,999 
Novel PK activator (AG-946)1,895 3,468 
Other research and platform programs3,685 3,467 
Total direct research and development expenses31,616 27,934 
Compensation and related expenses27,634 29,691 
Facilities and IT related expenses & other9,370 9,676 
Total indirect research and development expenses37,004 39,367 
Total research and development expense$68,620 $67,301 

Total Research and Development Expenses - Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 vs. Three Months Ended March 31, 2023 The increase in total research and development expenses of $1.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 was primarily due to a $3.7 million increase in our direct expenses, partially offset by a $2.4 million decrease in our indirect expenses. The increase in direct expenses was primarily due to an increase in PYRUKYND® costs due to increased process development expenses, partially offset by a decrease in AG-946 costs due to lower clinical trial and process development expenses. The decrease in our indirect expenses was primarily due to a decrease in compensation and related expenses, driven principally by workforce related expenses.
22

Table of Contents    
Other Income and Expense
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Interest income, net$8,889 $8,091 
Other income, net1,634 1,504 
Other Income and Expense - Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 vs. Three Months Ended March 31, 2023 – The increase in interest income, net was primarily attributable to an increase in interest rates. Other income, net in the three months ended March 31, 2024 was relatively consistent with the three months ended March 31, 2023.

Net Loss
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Net loss$(81,549)$(81,018)
Net Loss - Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 vs. Three Months Ended March 31, 2023 – The increase in net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 was primarily driven by the increase in selling, general and administrative expenses discussed above under Total Operating Expenses and the increase in research and development expenses discussed above under Research and Development Expenses, partially offset by the increase in revenue discussed above under Revenues and the increase in interest income, net discussed above under Other Income and Expense.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
Since our inception, and through March 31, 2021, we financed our operations primarily through proceeds from the sale of our royalty rights, commercial sales of TIBSOVO®, funding received from our collaboration agreements, private placements of our preferred stock, our initial public offering of our common stock and concurrent private placement of common stock to an affiliate of Celgene, and our follow-on public offerings. Following the sale of our oncology business to Servier on March 31, 2021, we have financed and expect to continue to finance our operations primarily through cash on hand, royalty payments from Servier with respect to U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® prior to the sale of these contingent payments to Sagard, proceeds from the sale of contingent payments to Sagard, a potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if a NDA for vorasidenib is approved by the FDA with a label that permits vorasidenib’s use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation, the actual and potential future sales of PYRUKYND® and, potentially, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other nondilutive strategic transactions. In addition, we may pursue opportunistic debt offerings, and equity or equity-linked offerings.
On March 31, 2021, we completed the sale of our oncology business to Servier. The transaction included the sale of our oncology business, including TIBSOVO®, our clinical-stage product candidates vorasidenib, AG-270 and AG-636, and our oncology research programs for a payment of approximately $1.8 billion in cash at the closing, subject to certain adjustments, and a payment of $200.0 million in cash, if, prior to January 1, 2027, vorasidenib is granted NDA approval from the FDA with an approved label that permits vorasidenib’s use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (and, to the extent required by such approval, the vorasidenib companion diagnostic test is granted an FDA premarket approval), as well as a royalty of 5% of U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® from the close of the transaction through loss of exclusivity, and a royalty of 15% of U.S. net sales of vorasidenib from the first commercial sale of vorasidenib through loss of exclusivity. The milestone payment for approval of vorasidenib and royalty payments related to vorasidenib and TIBSOVO® represent contingent consideration. Servier also acquired our co-commercialization rights for Bristol Myers Squibb's IDHIFA® and the right to receive a $25.0 million potential milestone payment under our prior collaboration agreement with Celgene, and following the sale Servier is responsible for conducting certain clinical development activities within the IDHIFA® development program. As discussed above in Note 1, Overview and Basis of Presentation, in October 2022, we sold our rights to the royalty on U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® to Sagard for $131.8 million. We retained our rights to the potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if an NDA for vorasidenib is approved by the FDA. In February 2024, Servier announced that it received filing acceptance and priority review from the FDA for its NDA for vorasidenib for the treatment of certain IDH-mutant diffuse glioma and accelerated assessment from the EMA, for its MAA for
23

Table of Contents    
vorasidenib. The FDA assigned the NDA a Prescription Drug User Fee Act action date of August 20, 2024, and Servier anticipates that the European Commission will approve its MAA in the second half of 2024.
Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balance was $714.3 million at March 31, 2024. The $200.0 million milestone payment and royalty payments discussed above are our only committed potential external sources of funds. Whether the regulatory approval milestone for vorasidenib will be achieved is subject to various risks and uncertainties, which are outside our control. Furthermore, we cannot predict what success, if any, Servier may have in the United States with respect to sales of vorasidenib, if approved, and consequently we cannot estimate the amount of royalty payments that we can expect to receive from Servier prior to the loss of exclusivity of vorasidenib.
Cash flows
The following table provides information regarding our cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Net cash used in operating activities$(99,867)$(95,183)
Net cash provided by investing activities124,562 57,596 
Net cash provided by financing activities5,864 2,467 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents$30,559 $(35,120)
Net cash used in operating activities. Cash used in operating activities of $99.9 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was primarily due to operating expenses driven by research and development costs described above under Research and Development Expenses, partially offset by cash received from interest income of $10.5 million and product revenues of $8.6 million.
Cash used in operating activities of $95.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2023 was primarily due to operating expenses driven by research and development costs described above under Research and Development Expenses, partially offset by cash received from product revenues.
Net cash provided by investing activities. Cash provided by investing activities of $124.6 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was primarily due to higher proceeds from maturities and sales of marketable securities than purchases of marketable securities.
Cash provided by investing activities of $57.6 million during the three months ended March 31, 2023 was primarily due to higher proceeds from maturities and sales of marketable securities than purchases of marketable securities.
Net cash provided by financing activities. Cash provided by financing activities of $5.9 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, was the result of net proceeds received from stock option exercises and purchases made pursuant to our 2013 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or 2013 ESPP.

Cash provided by financing activities of $2.5 million during the three months ended March 31, 2023 was the result of proceeds received from stock option exercises and purchases made pursuant to our 2013 ESPP.
Funding requirements
We expect our expenses to increase as we continue the research, development and clinical trials of, seek marketing approvals for, and commercialize our product candidates in our portfolio, including as we continue to commercialize PYRUKYND®. If we obtain additional marketing approvals for PYRUKYND® in other indications or outside of the United States or for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution.
We expect that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities as of March 31, 2024, together with anticipated product revenue, interest income and the potential vorasidenib milestone will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditures through several value-creating milestones and at least into 2026. This does not include cash inflows from potential royalties or royalty monetization from vorasidenib, commercializing mitapivat outside of the United States through one or more partnerships, or other potential strategic business or financial agreements. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
the amount and timing of future revenue received from commercial sales of PYRUKYND® or any of our product candidates for which we may receive marketing approval;
the amount of contingent consideration we ultimately receive from Servier;
the costs and timing of our ongoing commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, sales, marketing and distribution for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in approved jurisdictions;
24

Table of Contents    
the scope, progress, results and costs of preclinical development, laboratory testing and clinical trials for our product candidates;
the costs associated with in-licensing or acquiring assets for pipeline growth, including the amount and timing of future milestone and royalty payments potentially payable to Alnylam pursuant to the license agreement;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;
the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims;
the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, sales, marketing and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we may receive marketing approval;
our ability to establish and maintain collaborations on favorable terms, if at all;
our ability to successfully execute on our strategic plans;
operational delays due to public health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic; and
operational delays, disruptions and/or increased costs associated with global economic developments, rising global energy prices or energy shortages or rationing.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue, we expect to finance our cash needs primarily through cash on hand, the potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if vorasidenib is approved by the FDA, the actual and potential future sales of PYRUKYND® and, potentially, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other nondilutive strategic transactions. We may evaluate opportunities to sell all or a portion of our rights to the royalty from Servier of 15% of U.S. net sales of vorasidenib from the first commercial sale of vorasidenib through loss of exclusivity. We have no current arrangement, commitments or understandings for any specific monetization at this time and cannot provide any assurances that we will consummate any such transaction. In addition, we may pursue opportunistic debt offerings, and equity or equity-linked offerings. We do not have any committed external source of funds other than the potential milestone and royalty payments that we are eligible to receive with respect to vorasidenib under our purchase agreement with Servier. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our common stockholders. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, selling or licensing our assets, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.
If we raise funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates, or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed or on attractive terms, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts, or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.
Contractual Obligations
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, there were no material changes to our contractual obligations and commitments described under Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Item 3.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
We are exposed to market risk related to changes in interest rates. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $714.3 million and $806.4 million, respectively, consisting primarily of investments in U.S. Treasuries, government securities, corporate debt securities and certificates of deposit. Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates, particularly because our investments are primarily in short-term marketable securities. Our marketable securities are subject to interest rate risk and could fall in value if market interest rates increase. Due to the short-term duration of our investment portfolio and the low risk profile of our investments, we do not believe an immediate and uniform 100 basis point change in interest rates would have a material effect on the fair market value of our investment portfolio.
We are also exposed to market risk related to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We have contracts with CROs and contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, that are located in Asia and Europe and are denominated in foreign currencies. We are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency rates in connection with these agreements. We do not currently hedge our
25

Table of Contents    
foreign currency exchange rate risk. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had minimal or no liabilities denominated in foreign currencies.
Item 4.    Controls and Procedures
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, evaluated, as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures. Based on that evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2024, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures as of such date are effective at the reasonable assurance level. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to its management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Our management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives, and our management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act, that occurred during the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2024 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

26

Table of Contents    
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following risk factors and other information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be carefully considered. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks and uncertainties we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also impair our business operations. Please see page 16 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a discussion of some of the forward-looking statements that are qualified by these risk factors. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Risks Related to the Discovery, Development, and Commercialization of our Products and Product Candidates
If we do not successfully commercialize PYRUKYND® and other products for which we receive approval, our prospects may be substantially harmed.
In February 2022, we obtained marketing approval from the FDA for PYRUKYND® (mitapivat) for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States. In November 2022, we received marketing authorization from the European Commission for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients in the EU and in December 2022 we received marketing authorization in Great Britain for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency in adult patients under the European Commission Decision Reliance Procedure. PYRUKYND® is the first product in our rare disease portfolio that has received marketing approval and is our first product following the sale of our oncology business to Servier in March 2021. Our ability to generate meaningful revenue from PYRUKYND® will depend heavily on our successful development and commercialization of the product. In connection with our regulatory approvals in the EU and Great Britain, we are currently providing access to PYRUKYND® on a free of charge basis for eligible patients in those jurisdictions through a global managed access program.
The development and commercialization of PYRUKYND® could be unsuccessful if:
the medical community and third-party payors do not accept PYRUKYND® as safe, efficacious and cost-effective for the treatment of adults with PK deficiency in the approved jurisdictions;
we fail to maintain the necessary financial resources and expertise to manufacture, market and sell PYRUKYND®;
we fail to develop, implement and maintain effective marketing, sales and distribution strategies and operations for the development and commercialization of PYRUKYND®;
we fail to continue to develop, validate and maintain a commercially viable manufacturing process for PYRUKYND® that is compliant with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP;
we fail to successfully obtain third party reimbursement and generate commercial demand that results in expected sales of PYRUKYND®;
PYRUKYND® may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations and third-party reimbursement practices;
we encounter any third-party patent interference, derivation, inter partes review, post-grant review, reexamination or patent infringement claims with respect to PYRUKYND®;
we fail to comply with regulatory and legal requirements applicable to the sale of PYRUKYND®;
competing drug products are approved for the same indications as PYRUKYND®;
significant safety, manufacturing and/or quality risks are identified;
PYRUKYND® fails to gain and/or maintain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors and others in the medical community;
a significant number of eligible patients with PK deficiency are not prescribed PYRUKYND® and, if they are, such patients do not stay on treatment; or
PYRUKYND® does not demonstrate acceptable safety and efficacy in current or future clinical trials, or otherwise does not meet applicable regulatory standards for approval in other indications.
If we experience significant delays or an inability to successfully develop and commercialize PYRUKYND® our business would be materially harmed.
27

Table of Contents    
We depend heavily on the success of our clinical-stage product candidates, including the potential approval of PYRUKYND® for use in indications other than PK deficiency and in other jurisdictions. Clinical trials of our product candidates may not be successful for a number of important reasons. If we or our collaborators are unable to commercialize our product candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
We have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the identification of our product candidates and the development of our most advanced clinical programs, including PYRUKYND®. Our ability to generate meaningful product revenue will depend heavily on the successful clinical development and eventual commercialization of our current and any future product candidates, including PYRUKYND®. While we obtained marketing approval of PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States and marketing authorization of PYRUKYND® for the treatment of adults with PK deficiency in the EU and Great Britain, we cannot be certain that we will obtain marketing approval of PYRUKYND® in indications other than PK deficiency or in other jurisdictions.
We, and any collaborators, are not permitted to commercialize, market, promote or sell any product candidate in the United States without obtaining marketing approval from the FDA. Foreign regulatory authorities, such as the EMA, impose similar requirements in foreign jurisdictions. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidates, we must complete preclinical development and then conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates in humans.
Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to outcome. We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. The clinical development of our product candidates is susceptible to the risk of failure inherent at any stage of product development. Moreover, we, or any collaborators, may experience any of a number of possible unforeseen adverse events in connection with clinical trials, many of which are beyond our control, including:
we, or our collaborators, may fail to demonstrate efficacy in a clinical trial or across a broad population of patients;
it is possible that even if one or more of our product candidates has a beneficial effect, that effect will not be detected during clinical evaluation as a result of one or more of a variety of factors, including the size, duration, design, measurements, conduct or analysis of our clinical trials. Conversely, as a result of the same factors, our clinical trials may indicate an apparent positive effect of a product candidate that is greater than the actual positive effect, if any. For example, many compounds that initially showed promise in earlier stage testing for treating specific indications have later been found to cause side effects that prevented further development of the compound;
our product candidates may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics or otherwise expose participants to unacceptable health risks, causing us, our collaborators or our investigators, regulators or institutional review boards or the data safety monitoring board for such trial to halt, delay, interrupt, suspend or terminate the trials or cause us, or any collaborators, to abandon development or limit development of that product candidate to certain uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective;
if our product candidates have undesirable side effects, it could result in a more restrictive label, or it could result in the delay or denial of marketing approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities;
clinical trials of our product candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we, or our collaborators, may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials, including testing in more subjects, or abandon product development programs;
regulators or institutional review boards may not authorize us, our collaborators or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;
we or our collaborators may have delays in reaching or fail to reach agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites;
the number of patients required for clinical trials of our product candidates may be larger than we anticipate; enrollment in these clinical trials, which may be particularly challenging for some of the orphan diseases we target in our rare disease programs, may be slower than we anticipate; or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;
third-party contractors used by us or our collaborators may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations in a timely manner, or at all;
significant preclinical study or clinical trial delays could shorten any periods during which we, or any collaborators, may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors, or the competitors of any collaborators, to bring products to market before we, or any collaborators, do;
the cost of clinical trials of our product candidates may be greater than anticipated; and
28

Table of Contents    
the supply or quality of our product candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates may be insufficient or inadequate.
In December 2016, we withdrew our IND for AG-519, our second PK activator, following verbal notification of a clinical hold from the FDA relating to a previously disclosed case of drug-induced cholestatic hepatitis which occurred in our phase 1 clinical trial of AG-519 in healthy volunteers. Although these decisions and this hepatic adverse event finding do not affect our ongoing clinical trials for PYRUKYND®, our first PK activator, we cannot provide any assurances that there will not be other treatment-related severe adverse events in our other clinical trials, or that our other trials will not be placed on clinical hold in the future.
Our failure to successfully begin and complete clinical trials of our product candidates and to demonstrate the efficacy and safety necessary to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates could result in additional costs to us, or any collaborators, would impair our ability to generate revenue from product sales, regulatory and commercialization milestones and royalties and would significantly harm our business.

We may engage in in-licensing transactions or acquisitions that could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders or reduce our financial resources.
We have and may in the future enter into additional transactions to in-license products, technologies or assets or to acquire other products, technologies, assets or businesses. As part of the evolution of our research organization, we plan to prioritize in-licensing or acquiring assets for future pipeline growth. For example, in July 2023, we entered into a license agreement with Alnylam for the development and commercialization of products containing or comprised of an siRNA development candidate discovered by Alnylam and targeting the TMPRSS6 gene, and we intend to pursue development of a licensed product for the potential treatment of PV.
Our ability to successfully in-license or acquire assets and develop product candidates following such transactions is unproven. If we do identify additional suitable candidates or assets for in-licensing transactions or acquisitions, we may not be able to make such transactions on favorable terms, or at all. Such transactions may require us to relinquish rights to develop product candidates in certain indications, limit our ability to pursue certain targets or require us to make significant milestone or royalty payments to third parties upon achievement of certain events. For example, we are responsible to pay up to $130.0 million in potential development and regulatory milestones, in addition to sales milestones as well as tiered royalties on annual net sales, if any, of any licensed products, under the license agreement with Alnylam. Further, any in-licensing transaction or acquisitions we undertake may not strengthen our competitive position, and these transactions may be viewed negatively by customers or investors. We may decide to incur debt in connection with an acquisition or an in-licensing transaction or issue our common stock or other equity securities to the stockholders of the counterparty, which would reduce the percentage ownership of our existing stockholders. We could incur losses resulting from undiscovered liabilities of the acquired business, product or technology that are not covered by the indemnification we may obtain from the seller. In addition, we may not be able to successfully integrate the acquired personnel, technologies and operations into our existing business in an effective, timely and non-disruptive manner. Such transactions may also divert management attention from day-to-day responsibilities, increase our expenses and reduce our cash available for operations and other uses. We cannot ensure that following any transaction we would achieve the expected synergies to justify the transactions. We cannot predict the number, timing or size of future transactions or the effect that any such transactions might have on our operating results.

Public health epidemics or pandemics may affect our ability to initiate or continue our planned, ongoing and future preclinical studies and clinical trials, disrupt regulatory activities, disrupt our ability to maintain a commercial infrastructure for our product or have other adverse effects on our business and operations.
Public health emergencies or pandemics could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. We may face delays, disruptions or shortages as a result of such pandemics that may affect our ability to initiate and complete preclinical studies and clinical trials or impact our commercialization efforts. We have previously experienced disruptions to certain clinical and research activities at our CROs due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Any future pandemic or public health emergency could result in delays or pauses in site initiation, participant recruitment and enrollment, participant dosing, distribution of clinical trial materials, study monitoring and data analysis due to changes in hospital or university policies, federal, state or local regulations, diversion of hospital resources or other reasons related to a public health emergency. If a pandemic or public health emergency arises in the future, we may face difficulties recruiting or retaining patients in our ongoing clinical trials, and patients enrolled in our clinical trials may be unable or unwilling to visit clinical trial sites which may impact the collection of important clinical trial data and may necessitate remote data verification. In addition, limitations on the ability to visit sites may affect our enrollment timelines for our clinical trials, and may adversely affect the timing of completion of our clinical trials or our ability to complete clinical trials in a fully compliant manner. Additionally, the potential
29

Table of Contents    
suspension of clinical trial activity at clinical trial sites or reduced availability of CRO personnel may have an adverse impact on our clinical trial plans and timelines.
The public health emergency declarations related to COVID-19 ended on May 11, 2023. The FDA ended a number of COVID-19 related policies and retained a number of COVID-19 related policies. It is unclear how, if at all, these developments will impact our efforts to develop and commercialize our product candidates.
We cannot be certain what the overall impact of future health emergencies or pandemics will be on our business.

If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.
We or our collaborators may not be able to initiate, continue or complete clinical trials for our product candidates if we or they are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or analogous regulatory authorities outside the United States. Furthermore, enrollment had previously been particularly challenging in light of the recent COVID-19 pandemic.
Patient enrollment is also affected by other factors including:
prevalence and severity of the disease under investigation;
availability and efficacy of approved medications for the disease under investigation;
eligibility criteria for the study in question;
perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
patient referral practices of physicians;
the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and
proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.
Utilizing our precision medicine approach, we generally focus our development activities on genetically or biomarker defined patients most likely to respond to our therapies. As a result, the potential patient populations for our clinical trials are narrowed, and we may experience difficulties in identifying and enrolling a sufficient number of patients in our clinical trials.
In December 2022, with the passage of the Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act, Congress required sponsors to develop and submit a diversity action plan for each phase 3 clinical trial or any other "pivotal study" of a new drug product. These plans are meant to encourage enrollment of more diverse patient populations in late-stage clinical trials of FDA-regulated products. If we are not able to adhere to these new requirements, our ability to conduct clinical trials may be delayed or halted.
In addition, some of our competitors may have ongoing or planned clinical trials for product candidates that would treat the same indications as our product candidates, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials may instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ product candidates. For example, Rocket Pharma LTD, or Rocket Pharma, is developing a gene therapy targeting PK deficiency; Novo Nordisk A/S, or Novo Nordisk, is developing molecules for the treatment of alpha and beta thalassemia, SCD and LR MDS; Pfizer Inc., or Pfizer, is developing molecules for the treatment of SCD; Fulcrum Therapeutics Inc., or Fulcrum, is developing a treatment for SCD; Geron Corporation, or Geron, is developing imetelstat for the treatment of LR MDS (for which they have a Prescription Drug User Fee Act goal date of June 16, 2024 for their NDA); Keros Therapeutics, or Keros, is developing KER-050 for the treatment of anemia in LR MDS; PTC Therapeutics, Inc., or PTC, and Jnana Therapeutics, Inc., or Jnana, and Homology Medicines Inc., or Homology, are developing therapies to treat PKU; and Protagonist Therapeutics, or Protagonist, with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, or Takeda, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Ionis, Silence Therapeutics, or Silence, and Merck & Co., Inc., or Merck, are developing therapies to treat PV. Competition for eligible patients may make it particularly difficult for us to enroll a sufficient number of patients to complete our clinical trials for our product candidates in a timely and cost-effective manner.
In addition, we have a small number of clinical trial sites for certain clinical trials in the Middle East, including in Lebanon and Israel, that could be affected by the current armed conflict in Israel and the Gaza Strip.
We rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and while we have agreements governing their committed activities, we have limited influence over their actual performance. Our or our collaborators’ inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether, or result in increased development costs for our product candidates, which would cause the value of our company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.

30

Table of Contents    
Results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of results of later-stage clinical trials.
The outcome of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of clinical trials do not necessarily predict success in future clinical trials. Many companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in late-stage clinical trials after achieving positive results in earlier stages of development, and we could face similar setbacks. The design of a clinical trial can determine whether its results will support approval of a product and flaws in the design of a clinical trial may not become apparent until the clinical trial is well advanced. In addition, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses. Many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval for the product candidates. Even if we, or any collaborators, believe that the results of clinical trials for our product candidates warrant marketing approval, the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree and may not grant marketing approval of our product candidates.
In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety or efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial procedures set forth in protocols, differences in the size and type of the patient populations, changes in and adherence to the dosing regimen and other clinical trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. While we obtained marketing approval of PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States and marketing authorization of PYRUKYND® for the treatment of adults with PK deficiency in the EU and Great Britain, we cannot be certain that we will obtain marketing approval of PYRUKYND® in other indications. The results of clinical trials of PYRUKYND® for the treatment of PK deficiency do not predict that PYRUKYND® will be efficacious in our ongoing clinical trials in other indications, such as thalassemia or SCD. If we fail to receive positive results in clinical trials of our product candidates, the development timeline and regulatory approval and commercialization prospects for our most advanced product candidates, and, correspondingly, our business and financial prospects would be negatively impacted.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on research programs and product candidates that we identify for specific indications. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. We have decided to evolve our approach to exploratory research and drug discovery to prioritize investment in advancing our late lead-optimization research, while continuing to progress our registration-enabling clinical programs in thalassemia, SCD and pediatric PK deficiency, our phase 2a trial in LR MDS, our phase 1 trial for AG-181, our PAH stabilizer for the potential treatment of PKU, and our development of a licensed siRNA development candidate under our license agreement with Alnylam. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial medicines or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable medicines. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate.

We or others may later discover that PYRUKYND®, or any of our product candidates that may receive marketing approval in the future, is less effective than previously believed or causes undesirable side effects that were not previously identified, which could compromise our ability, or that of any collaborators, to market the product.
It is possible that our clinical trials, or those of any collaborators, may indicate an apparent positive effect of a product candidate that is greater than the actual positive effect, if any, or alternatively fail to identify undesirable side effects. If, following approval of a product candidate, including PYRUKYND®, we, or others, discover that the product is less effective than previously believed or causes undesirable side effects that were not previously identified, any of the following adverse events could occur:
regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product or seize the product;
we, or any collaborators, may be required to recall the product, change the way the product is administered or conduct additional clinical trials;
additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing of, or the manufacturing processes for, the particular product;
we may be subject to fines, injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties;
regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements;
31

Table of Contents    
we, or any collaborators, may be required to create a Medication Guide outlining the risks of the previously unidentified side effects for distribution to patients;
we, or any collaborators, could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;
the product may become less competitive; and
our reputation may suffer.

PYRUKYND®, or any of our product candidates that may receive marketing approval in the future, may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.
PYRUKYND®, or any of our product candidates that may receive marketing approval in the future, may fail to gain and/or maintain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors and others in the medical community. If PYRUKYND® or any of our product candidates that may receive marketing approval do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenue and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of PYRUKYND® and any of our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:
efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;
the ability to offer our medicines for sale at competitive prices;
convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;
the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;
ensuring uninterrupted product supply;
the strength of marketing and distribution support;
sufficient third-party coverage or reimbursement; and
the prevalence and severity of any side effects.

If we are unable to maintain sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to sell and market our product candidates, we may not be successful in commercializing PYRUKYND® or any of our product candidates if they are approved.
We have limited experience in the sale, marketing or distribution of pharmaceutical products. To achieve commercial success for approved medicines for which we retain sales and marketing responsibilities, we must either develop a sales and marketing organization or outsource these functions to other third parties. We have established sales and marketing capabilities to support our commercial launch of PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States. In addition, in connection with our regulatory approvals in the EU and Great Britain, we are currently providing access to PYRUKYND® free of charge for eligible patients in those jurisdictions through a global managed access program. We provide access to PYRUKYND® for adult patients with PK deficiency in other jurisdictions upon request through the global managed access program, on either a free of charge or for charge basis. We may need to further build our sales and marketing infrastructure, either directly or with third-party partners, to maintain our ongoing commercialization efforts and to commercialize PYRUKYND® in other indications or outside of the United States or to commercialize any of our other product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.
There are risks involved with both establishing our own sales and marketing capabilities and entering into arrangements with third parties to perform these services. For example, recruiting and training a sales force is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a product candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.
Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our medicines on our own include:
our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;
the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future medicines;
the lack of complementary medicines to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and
32

Table of Contents    
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.
If we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing and distribution services, our product revenue or the profitability of product revenue to us are likely to be lower than if we were to market and sell any medicines that we develop ourselves. In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to sell and market our product candidates or may be unable to do so on terms that are favorable to us. We likely will have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our medicines effectively. If we do not establish sales and marketing capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing PYRUKYND® or any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.
We provide certain development estimates related to the development of PYRUKYND® and our product candidates. If we do not achieve our projected development estimates in the timeframes we announce and expect, the commercialization of our products may be delayed and, as a result, our stock price may decline.
From time to time, we provide estimates related to the development of PYRUKYND® and our product candidates. We also estimate the timing of the anticipated accomplishment of various scientific, preclinical, clinical, regulatory and other product development goals. These estimates may include the commencement or completion of clinical trials and the submission of regulatory filings. From time to time, we may publicly announce our estimates, including the timing of certain milestones related to our product candidates. All of these estimates are and will be based on numerous assumptions. The actual results and timing of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and regulatory submissions can vary dramatically compared to our estimates, in some cases for reasons beyond our control. If our estimates change or we do not meet the timing of our estimates as publicly announced, or at all, the commercialization of our products may be delayed or never achieved and, as a result, our stock price may decline.
We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.
We face competition with respect to PYRUKYND® and our current product candidates, and we will face competition with respect to any product candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future. Potential competitors may include major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing and commercialization. There are a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that currently market and sell products or are pursuing the development of products for the treatment of the indications for which we are developing our product or our product candidates, such as PK deficiency, thalassemia, SCD, LR MDS, PKU, and PV. For example, Merck and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or BMS, are marketing a therapy to treat beta thalassemia and LR MDS and are conducting clinical trials for alpha thalassemia and LR MDS patients that are ESA naïve and non-transfusion dependent; Novartis International AG, or Novartis, Emmaus Life Sciences, and Pfizer are each marketing therapies to treat SCD, with Pfizer continuing to conduct clinical trials for therapies in SCD; BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., or BioMarin, is marketing and conducting clinical trials for therapies to treat PKU; Novo Nordisk is conducting clinical trials for the treatment of alpha and beta thalassemia, SCD and LR MDS; bluebird is marketing a gene therapy to treat transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia and SCD; Vertex, with CRISPR, is marketing a gene therapy targeting SCD and transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia; Fulcrum is conducting clinical trials for a potential treatment for SCD; Geron and Keros are conducting clinical trials for potential treatments for LR MDS (for which Geron has a Prescription Drug User Fee Act goal date of June 16, 2024 for their NDA); PTC and Jnana and are conducting clinical trials for potential treatments for PKU; PharmaEssentia Corp, or PharmaEssentia, and Incyte Corporation, or Incyte, are marketing therapies to treat PV, and Protagonist with Takeda, Ionis, Italfarmaco S.p.A., Disc Medicine, Inc., and Silence are developing therapies to treat PV; and a number of other biotechnology companies have product candidates in clinical development in similar indications as ours.
There are a variety of treatment options available, including a number of marketed enzyme replacement therapies, or ERTs, for treating patients with rare diseases. In addition to currently marketed therapies, there are also a number of products that are either ERTs, gene therapies or PK activators in various stages of clinical development to treat rare diseases. These products in development may provide efficacy, safety, convenience and other benefits that are not provided by currently marketed therapies or for which there are no approved treatments. As a result, they may provide significant competition for any of our product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.
There are also a number of product candidates in preclinical or clinical development by third parties to treat rare diseases by targeting similar mechanisms of action or target indications as our product candidates. These companies include large pharmaceutical companies, such as Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, BMS, Merck and Vertex as well as biotechnology companies of various sizes, such as BioMarin, bluebird, PTC and Rocket Pharma.
33

Table of Contents    
Our competitors may develop products that are more effective, safer, more convenient or less costly than PYRUKYND® or any product candidates that we are developing or that would render PYRUKYND® or our product candidates obsolete or non-competitive. In addition, our competitors may discover biomarkers that more efficiently measure metabolic pathways than our methods, which may give them a competitive advantage in developing potential products. Our competitors may also obtain marketing approval from the FDA or other regulatory authorities for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.
Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and globally marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller and clinical stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring or in-licensing technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

If the FDA does not grant our products, if and when approved, appropriate periods of data exclusivity before approving generic or follow-on versions of our products, the sales of our products could be adversely affected.
With FDA approval of an NDA, the product covered by the application is specified as a “reference-listed drug” in the FDA’s publication, “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” or the Orange Book. Manufacturers may seek approval of generic versions of reference-listed drugs through submission of abbreviated new drug applications, or ANDAs, in the United States.
In support of an ANDA, a generic manufacturer need not conduct clinical trials. Rather, the sponsor generally must show that its product has the same active ingredient(s), dosage form, strength, route of administration and conditions of use or labeling as the reference-listed drug and that the generic version is bioequivalent to the reference-listed drug, meaning it is absorbed in the body at the same rate and to the same extent. Generic products may be significantly less costly to bring to market than the reference-listed drug and companies that produce generic products are generally able to offer them at lower prices. Thus, following the introduction of a generic drug, a significant percentage of the sales of any reference-listed drug may be typically lost to the generic product.
A manufacturer may also submit an NDA under section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, that references the FDA’s prior approval of the innovator product or preclinical studies and/or clinical trials that were not conducted by, or for, the sponsor and for which the sponsor has not obtained a right of reference. A 505(b)(2) NDA product, or follow-product, may be for a new or improved version of the original reference listed drug.
The FDA may not approve an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA until any applicable period of non-patent exclusivity for the reference-listed drug has expired. The FDCA provides a period of five years of new chemical entity exclusivity for a new drug containing a new active moiety. Specifically, in cases where such exclusivity has been granted, an ANDA or a 505(b)(2) NDA may not be filed with the FDA until the expiration of five years unless the submission is accompanied by a Paragraph IV certification that a patent covering the reference-listed drug is either invalid or will not be infringed by the generic product, in which case the sponsor may submit its application four years following approval of the reference-listed drug. The FDCA also provides a period of three years of new clinical investigation data exclusivity in connection with the approval of a supplemental indication for the product for which a clinical trial is deemed by the FDA as essential for approval.
In the event that a generic or follow-on manufacturer is somehow able to obtain FDA approval without adherence to these periods of data exclusivity, the competition that our approved products may face from generic and follow-on versions could negatively impact our future revenue, profitability and cash flows and substantially limit our ability to obtain a return on our investments in those product candidates.
In addition, if there are patents listed for our drug products in the Orange Book, ANDAs and 505(b)(2) NDAs would be required to include a certification as to each listed patent indicating whether the sponsor intends to challenge the patent. We cannot predict which, if any, patents in our current portfolio or patents we may obtain in the future will be eligible for listing in the Orange Book, how any generic or follow-on competitor would address such patents, whether we would sue on any such patents or the outcome of any such suit.
Product liability lawsuits against us or any collaborators could cause us or our collaborators to incur substantial liabilities and could limit commercialization of any medicines that we or they may develop.
We and any collaborators face a risk of product liability exposure related to our product candidates in human clinical trials and face an even greater risk as we or they commercially sell any medicines, including PYRUKYND®. If we or any collaborators
34

Table of Contents    
cannot successfully defend ourselves or themselves against claims that our product candidates or medicines caused injuries, we or they could incur substantial costs and liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may also result in, among other things, decreased demand for any product candidates or medicines that we may develop, reputational harm and lost revenue.
Although we maintain product liability insurance coverage, it may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur.
Our internal information technology systems, or those of any third parties with which we contract, may fail or suffer security breaches, loss of data or other disruptions which could result in a material disruption of our product development programs, compromise sensitive information related to our business or prevent us from accessing critical information, trigger legal obligations, potentially exposing us to liability, competitive or reputational harm or otherwise adversely affecting our business and financial results.
Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal information technology systems and those of third parties with which we contract are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, worms and other destructive or disruptive software, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. Such systems are also vulnerable to service interruptions or to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, third-party vendors and/or business partners, or from cyber incidents by malicious third parties. Cybersecurity incidents are increasing in their frequency, sophistication and intensity, and have become increasingly difficult to detect. Cybersecurity incidents could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access to or deletion of files, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. Cybersecurity incidents also could include phishing attempts or e-mail fraud to cause payments or information to be transmitted to an unintended recipient. Attackers may use artificial intelligence and machine learning to launch more automated, targeted and coordinated attacks against targets. We could be subject to risks caused by misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or intentional or accidental release or loss of information maintained in the information systems and networks of our company, including personal information of our employees. We may not be able to anticipate all types of security threats, and we may not be able to implement preventive measures effective against all such security threats. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched, and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups such as external service providers, organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations or hostile foreign governments or agencies.
System failures, accidents, cybersecurity incidents or security breaches could cause interruptions in our operations, and could result in a material disruption of our clinical and commercialization activities and business operations, whether due to a loss of our trade secrets or other proprietary information or other similar disruptions, in addition to possibly requiring substantial expenditures of resources to remedy. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability, our competitive position could be harmed and our product research, development and commercialization efforts could be delayed. In addition, we may not have adequate insurance coverage to provide compensation for any losses associated with such events.
If a material breach of our security or that of our vendors occurs, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed, and, as a result, we could lose business and our reputation and credibility could be damaged. We could be required to expend significant amounts of money and other resources to repair or replace information systems or networks. Although we develop and maintain processes, systems and controls designed to prevent these events from occurring, and we have a process to assess, identify and manage threats, the development and maintenance of these systems, controls and processes is costly and requires ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become more sophisticated. Moreover, despite our efforts, the possibility of these events occurring cannot be eliminated entirely. We cannot guarantee that the measures we have taken to date, and actions we may take in the future, will be sufficient to prevent any cyber-attacks or security breaches.
We are subject to stringent privacy laws, information security laws, regulations, policies and contractual obligations related to data privacy and security and changes in such laws, regulations, policies, contractual obligations and failure to comply with such requirements could subject us to significant fines and penalties, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to data privacy and protection laws and regulations that apply to the collection, transmission, storage and use of personally-identifying information, which among other things, impose certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of personal information, including comprehensive regulatory systems in the United States, EU and United Kingdom. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve in jurisdictions worldwide, and there has been an increasing focus on privacy and data protection issues with the potential to affect our
35

Table of Contents    
business. Failure to comply with any of these laws and regulations could result in enforcement action against us, including fines, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, claims for damages by affected individuals, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
There are numerous U.S. federal and state laws and regulations related to the privacy and security of personal information. In particular, regulations promulgated pursuant to the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, establish privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of individually identifiable health information, or protected health information, and require the implementation of administrative, physical and technological safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information and ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of electronic protected health information. Determining whether protected health information has been handled in compliance with applicable privacy standards and our contractual obligations can be complex and may be subject to changing interpretation. These obligations may be applicable to some or all of our business activities now or in the future.
If we are unable to properly protect the privacy and security of protected health information, we could be found to have breached our contracts. Further, if we fail to comply with applicable privacy laws, including applicable HIPAA privacy and security standards, we could face civil and criminal penalties. Enforcement activity by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, or HHS, can result in financial liability and reputational harm, and responses to such enforcement activity can consume significant internal resources. In addition, state attorneys general are authorized to bring civil actions seeking either injunctions or damages in response to violations that threaten the privacy of state residents. We cannot be sure how these regulations will be interpreted, enforced or applied to our operations. In addition to the risks associated with enforcement activities and potential contractual liabilities, our ongoing efforts to comply with evolving laws and regulations at the federal and state level may be costly and require ongoing modifications to our policies, procedures and systems.
In addition to potential enforcement by HHS, we are also potentially subject to privacy enforcement from the Federal Trade Commission, or FTC. The FTC has been particularly focused on the unpermitted processing of health and genetic data through its recent enforcement actions and is expanding the types of privacy violations that it interprets to be “unfair” under Section 5 of the FTC Act of 1914, as well as the types of activities it views to trigger the Health Breach Notification Rule (which the FTC also has the authority to enforce). The agency is also in the process of developing rules related to commercial surveillance and data security that may impact our business. We will need to account for the FTC’s evolving rules and guidance for proper privacy and data security practices in order to mitigate our risk for a potential enforcement action, which may be costly. If we are subject to a potential FTC enforcement action, we may be subject to a settlement order that requires us to adhere to very specific privacy and data security practices, which may impact our business. We may also be required to pay fines as part of a settlement (depending on the nature of the alleged violations). If we violate any consent order that we reach with the FTC, we may be subject to additional fines and compliance requirements.
States are also active in creating specific rules relating to the processing of personal information. In 2018, California passed into law the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which took effect on January 1, 2020 and imposed many requirements on businesses that process the personal information of California residents. Many of the CCPA’s requirements are similar to those found in the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, including requiring businesses to provide notice to data subjects regarding the information collected about them and how such information is used and shared, and providing data subjects the right to request access to such personal information and, in certain cases, request the erasure of such personal information. The CCPA also affords California residents the right to opt-out of “sales” of their personal information. The CCPA contains significant penalties for companies that violate its requirements. In November 2020, California voters passed a ballot initiative for the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, which went into effect on January 1, 2023 and significantly expanded the CCPA to incorporate additional GDPR-like provisions including requiring that the use, retention, and sharing of personal information of California residents be reasonably necessary and proportionate to the purposes of collection or processing, granting additional protections for sensitive personal information, and requiring greater disclosures related to notice to residents regarding retention of information. The CPRA also created a new enforcement agency – the California Privacy Protection Agency – whose sole responsibility is to enforce the CPRA, which will further increase compliance risk. The provisions in the CPRA may apply to some of our business activities.
In addition to California, a number of other states have passed comprehensive privacy laws similar to the CCPA and CPRA. These laws are either in effect or will go into effect sometime before the end of 2026. Like the CCPA and CPRA, these laws create obligations related to the processing of personal information, as well as special obligations for the processing of “sensitive” data (which includes health data in some cases). Some of the provisions of these laws may apply to our business activities. There are also states that are strongly considering or are in the process of enacting privacy laws that will go into effect in 2024 and beyond, including New Hampshire and New Jersey. Other states will be considering these laws in the future, and Congress has also been debating passing a federal privacy law. There are also states that are specifically regulating health information that may affect our business. For example, Washington state passed a health privacy law that will regulate the collection and sharing of health information, and the law also has a private right of action, which further increases the relevant
36

Table of Contents    
compliance risk. Connecticut and Nevada have also passed similar laws regulating consumer health data, and more states are considering such legislation in 2024. These laws may impact our business activities, including our identification of research subjects, relationships with business partners and ultimately the marketing and distribution of our products.
Similar to the laws in the United States, there are significant privacy and data security laws that apply in Europe and other countries. The collection, use, disclosure, transfer, or other processing of personal data, including personal health data, regarding individuals who are located in the European Economic Area, or EEA, and the processing of personal data that takes place in the EEA, is regulated by the GDPR, which went into effect in May 2018 and which imposes obligations on companies that operate in our industry with respect to the processing of personal data and the cross-border transfer of such data. The GDPR imposes onerous accountability obligations requiring data controllers and processors to maintain a record of their data processing and policies. If our or our partners’ or service providers’ privacy or data security measures fail to comply with the GDPR requirements, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations, enforcement notices requiring us to change the way we use personal data and/or fines of up to 20 million Euros or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher, as well as compensation claims by affected individuals, negative publicity, reputational harm and a potential loss of business and goodwill.
The GDPR places restrictions on the cross-border transfer of personal data from the EU to countries that have not been found by the European Commission to offer adequate data protection legislation, such as the United States. There are ongoing concerns about the ability of companies to transfer personal data from the EU to other countries. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union, or the CJEU, invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, one of the mechanisms used to legitimize the transfer of personal data from the EEA to the U.S. The CJEU decision also drew into question the long-term viability of an alternative means of data transfer, the standard contractual clauses, for transfers of personal data from the EEA to the U.S. This CJEU decision has resulted in increased scrutiny on data transfers generally and may increase our costs of compliance with data privacy legislation as well as our costs of negotiating appropriate privacy and security agreements with our vendors and business partners.
Additionally, in October 2022, President Biden signed an executive order to implement the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework, which would serve as a replacement to the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield. The European Commission initiated the process to adopt an adequacy decision for the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework in December 2022, and the European Commission adopted the adequacy decision on July 10, 2023. The adequacy decision will permit U.S. companies who self-certify to the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework to rely on it as a valid data transfer mechanism for data transfers from the EU to the U.S. However, some privacy advocacy groups have already suggested that they will be challenging the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework. If these challenges are successful, they may not only impact the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework, but also further limit the viability of the standard contractual clauses and other data transfer mechanisms. The uncertainty around this issue has the potential to impact our business internationally.
Following Brexit, the UK Data Protection Act 2018 applies to the processing of personal data that takes place in the United Kingdom and includes parallel obligations to those set forth by GDPR. In relation to data transfers, both the United Kingdom and the EU have determined, through separate “adequacy” decisions, that data transfers between the two jurisdictions are in compliance with the UK Data Protection Act and the GDPR, respectively. The United Kingdom and the U.S. are also in discussions to develop a US-UK “data bridge”, which would function similarly to the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework and provide an additional legal mechanism for companies to transfer data from the United Kingdom to the U.S. In addition to the United Kingdom, Switzerland is also in the process of approving an adequacy decision in relation to the Swiss-U.S. Data Privacy Framework (which would function similarly to the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework and the U.S.-UK “data bridge” in relation to data transfers from Switzerland to the United States). Any changes or updates to these developments have the potential to impact our business.
Beyond GDPR, there are privacy and data security laws in a growing number of countries around the world. While many loosely follow GDPR as a model, other laws contain different or conflicting provisions. These laws will impact our ability to conduct our business activities, including both our clinical trials and the sale and distribution of commercial products, through increased compliance costs, costs associated with contracting and potential enforcement actions.
While we continue to address the implications of the recent changes to data privacy regulations, data privacy remains an evolving landscape at both the domestic and international level, with new regulations coming into effect and continued legal challenges, and our efforts to comply with the evolving data protection rules may be unsuccessful. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. We must devote significant resources to understanding and complying with this changing landscape. Failure to comply with laws regarding data protection would expose us to risk of enforcement actions taken by data protection authorities in the EEA and elsewhere and carries with it the potential for significant penalties if we are found to be non-compliant. Similarly, failure to comply with federal and state laws in the United States regarding privacy and security of personal information could expose us to penalties under such laws. Any such failure to comply with data protection and privacy laws could result in government-imposed fines or orders requiring that
37

Table of Contents    
we change our practices, claims for damages or other liabilities, regulatory investigations and enforcement action, litigation and significant costs for remediation, any of which could adversely affect our business. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position
We face new challenges as a smaller, less diversified company following the sale of our oncology business to Servier.
We developed most of our initial products and product candidates for the treatment of various types of cancer. The sale of our oncology business to Servier in 2021, including our approved products at the time of sale, TIBSOVO® and IDHIFA®, has resulted in us being a smaller, less diversified company with a more limited business concentrated on products and product candidates for the treatment of rare diseases. The success of the rare disease business is subject to various risks and uncertainties, including the possibility that we may not be able to successfully commercialize PYRUKYND®, the possibility of adverse clinical and other developments in respect of PYRUKYND® or our other product candidates of the rare disease business, and unanticipated changes in applicable laws and regulations that may adversely affect the rare disease business.
We may be more susceptible to changing market conditions, including fluctuations and risks particular to the markets for patients with rare diseases, than a more diversified company, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, even with the FDA approval of PYRUKYND®, the diversification of our revenues, costs and cash flows has diminished following the sale of our oncology business. Our results of operations, cash flows, working capital and financing requirements may be subject to increased volatility and our ability to fund capital expenditures and investments or satisfy other financial commitments may be diminished.
Raising additional capital may restrict our operations, require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates or cause dilution to our stockholders.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue, including from sales of PYRUKYND®, we expect to finance our cash needs primarily through cash on hand, a potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if a NDA for vorasidenib is approved by the FDA with a label that permits vorasidenib's use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation, and, potentially, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other nondilutive strategic transactions. In addition, we may pursue opportunistic debt offerings, and equity or equity-linked offerings. We do not have any committed external source of funds other than the potential milestone and royalty payments that we are eligible to receive with respect to vorasidenib under our purchase agreement with Servier. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our common stockholders. Debt financing, if available, may require us to enter into agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, selling or licensing our assets, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. In addition, securing financing could require a substantial amount of time and attention from our management and may divert a disproportionate amount of their attention away from day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our management’s ability to oversee the development of our product candidates.
If we raise funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.
If our existing capital is insufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditures, we will need to raise capital, and if we are unable to raise capital when needed, we would be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development programs or commercialization efforts.
We expect to incur significant expenses as we continue to advance our ongoing activities. Our estimate as to how long we expect our existing cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities to be available to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditures is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Further, changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
the amount and timing of future revenue received from commercial sales of PYRUKYND® and any of our other product candidates for which we may receive marketing approval;
the amount of contingent consideration we ultimately receive from Servier;
38

Table of Contents    
the costs and timing of our ongoing commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, sales, marketing and distribution, for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of adults with PK deficiency in the approved jurisdictions;
the anticipated cost-savings associated with the evolution of our research organization;
the scope, progress, results and costs of preclinical development, laboratory testing and clinical trials for our product candidates;
the costs associated with in-licensing or acquiring assets for pipeline growth, including the amount and timing of future milestone and royalty payments payable to Alnylam pursuant to the license agreement;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;
the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims;
the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, sales, marketing and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we may receive marketing approval;
our ability to establish and maintain collaborations on favorable terms, if at all;
our ability to successfully execute on our strategic plans;
operational delays due to public health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic; and
operational delays, disruptions and/or increased costs associated with global economic developments, rising global energy prices or energy shortages or rationing.
We have historically incurred operating losses. We expect to incur losses in the future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.
We have a history of incurring operating losses. Our net losses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were $81.5 million and $81.0 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, we had an accumulated deficit of $904.2 million. Prior to the sale of our oncology business to Servier in March 2021, we had generated only modest revenue from sales of TIBSOVO® and, prior to our sale to Royalty Pharma of our royalty rights to IDHIFA®, from royalties on sales of IDHIFA®. Following receipt of marketing approval in February 2022, we have begun to commercialize PYRUKYND® for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with PK deficiency in the United States. We are currently providing access to PYRUKYND® free of charge for eligible patients in the EU and Great Britain through a global managed access program, and we provide access to PYRUKYND® for adult patients with PK deficiency in other jurisdictions through the global managed access program on either a free of charge or for charge basis. PYRUKYND® is the first product we have received marketing approval for following the sale of our oncology business. We have neither obtained marketing approval for PYRUKYND® in any other indications nor have we obtained marketing approval for any of our other product candidates, all of which are in preclinical or clinical development stages.
Following the sale of our oncology business, we have financed and expect to continue to finance our operations primarily through cash on hand, royalty payments from Servier with respect to U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® prior to the sale of these royalty rights to Sagard, proceeds from the sale of our rights to the royalty on U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO® to Sagard, a potential milestone payment and royalties from Servier if a NDA for vorasidenib is approved by the FDA with a label that permits vorasidenib's use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation, the actual and potential future sales of PYRUKYND® and, potentially, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other nondilutive strategic transactions. In addition, we may pursue opportunistic debt offerings, and equity or equity-linked offerings. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and net losses until such time as we are able to report profitable results. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter. We anticipate that we will incur significant expenses if and as we:
commercially launch PYRUKYND® for approved indications in approved jurisdictions;
continue to establish and maintain a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize PYRUKYND® and other product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval;
initiate and continue clinical trials for our products and product candidates, including PYRUKYND® in other indications;
continue our research and preclinical development of our product candidates and seek to identify additional product candidates;
seek marketing approvals for our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
require the manufacture of larger quantities of product candidates for clinical development and commercialization;
maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
39

Table of Contents    
add additional personnel to support our product research and development and planned future commercialization efforts and our operations;
add equipment and physical infrastructure to support our research and development; and
acquire or in-license other product candidates, medicines and technologies.
To become and remain profitable, we must develop and successfully commercialize medicines with significant market potential. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing preclinical testing and clinical trials of our product candidates, obtaining marketing approval for these product candidates, manufacturing, marketing and selling those medicines for which we may obtain marketing approval and satisfying any post-marketing requirements. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause our stockholders to lose all or part of their investment.
The amount of contingent consideration we will receive from the sale of our oncology business to Servier is subject to various risks and uncertainties.
Upon closing of the sale of our oncology business to Servier, Servier assumed certain liabilities with respect to the oncology business and paid to us: approximately $1.8 billion in cash, net of certain adjustments for the working capital of the oncology business at the time of closing of the transaction and amounts for a representation and warranty insurance policy. In addition, Servier agreed to pay to us:
$200.0 million in cash if, prior to January 1, 2027, vorasidenib is granted approval for an NDA from the FDA with an approved label that permits vorasidenib’s use as a single agent for the adjuvant treatment of patients with Grade 2 glioma that have an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (and, to the extent required by such approval, the vorasidenib companion diagnostic test is granted an FDA premarket approval);
a royalty payment of 5% of the U.S. net sales (as defined in the purchase agreement with Servier) of TIBSOVO® from the completion of the transaction through loss of exclusivity of TIBSOVO®, which we sold to Sagard in October 2022; and
a royalty payment of 15% of the U.S. net sales (as defined in the purchase agreement with Servier) of vorasidenib from its first commercial sale through loss of exclusivity of vorasidenib.
The contingent consideration described above is subject to various risks and uncertainties.
Although the FDA assigned Servier’s NDA for vorasidenib a Prescription Drug User Fee Act action date of August 20, 2024, there is no guarantee that vorasidenib will be approved by the FDA, and that, as such we will receive the $200.0 million regulatory payment milestone.
Prior to the sale to Sagard, we received royalties from Servier on U.S. net sales of TIBSOVO®. We cannot however predict what success, if any, Servier may have in the United States with respect to future sales of vorasidenib, if approved, and, therefore, we cannot predict the amount of royalty payments that we can expect to receive from Servier prior to the loss of exclusivity of vorasidenib. The potential royalty payments with respect to vorasidenib are also subject to deductions and other adjustments under the terms of the purchase agreement, the amounts of which are uncertain as of the date of this report.
Changes in tax laws or in their implementation or interpretation may adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Changes in tax law may adversely affect our business or financial condition. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, which significantly reformed the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. The Tax Act, among other things, contained significant changes to corporate taxation.
As part of Congress’ response to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, economic relief legislation was enacted in 2020 and 2021. Such legislation contains numerous tax provisions. In addition, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, was signed into law in August 2022. The IRA introduced new tax provisions, including a 1% excise tax imposed on certain stock repurchases by publicly traded corporations. The 1% excise tax generally applies to any acquisition by the publicly traded corporation (or certain of its affiliates) of stock of the publicly traded corporation in exchange for money or other property (other than stock of the corporation itself), subject to a de minimis exception. Thus, the excise tax could apply to certain transactions that are not traditional stock repurchases. Regulatory guidance under the IRA, the Tax Act, and such additional legislation is and continues to be forthcoming, and such guidance could ultimately increase or lessen impact of these laws on our business and financial condition. In addition, it is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the IRA, the Tax Act, and additional tax legislation.
40

Table of Contents    
Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties
We rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and some aspects of our research and preclinical testing, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials, research or testing.
We do not independently conduct clinical trials of any of our product candidates. We rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions and clinical investigators, to conduct our clinical trials. In addition, we currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties to conduct some aspects of our research and preclinical testing. Any of these third parties may terminate their engagements with us, some in the event of an uncured material breach and some at any time. If any of our relationships with these third parties terminate, we may not be able to enter into similar arrangements with alternative third-parties or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. Switching or adding additional third parties involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. As a result, delays may occur in our product development activities. Although we seek to carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, we could encounter such challenges or delays that could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.
Our reliance on third parties for research and development activities reduces our control over these activities but does not relieve us of our responsibilities. For example, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol and legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on third parties does not relieve us of our responsibility to comply with any such standards. We and these third parties are required to comply with current good clinical practices, or cGCP, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA, the competent authorities of the member states of the EEA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for all of our product candidates in clinical development. Regulatory authorities enforce these cGCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of these third parties fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, the EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you a given regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with cGCP regulations. We also are required to register ongoing clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a U.S. government-sponsored database, clinicaltrials.gov, within certain timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity, and civil and criminal sanctions. We are exposed to risk of fraud or other misconduct by such third parties.
Furthermore, third parties on whom we rely may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors. In addition, these third parties are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such third parties, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our on-going clinical, nonclinical, and preclinical programs.
If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for our product candidates and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to successfully commercialize our medicines.
If either we or any third parties on which we rely are adversely impacted by rising global energy costs or energy shortages or rationing, delays may occur in our product development activities, which delays could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.
We also rely and expect to continue to rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates or commercialization of our medicines, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.
We contract with third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical and clinical testing and for commercialization.
We do not have any manufacturing or supply chain related facilities. We currently rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third-party manufacturers for the materials and manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical and clinical testing and for commercial supply of PYRUKYND® and any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.
Although we have entered into long-term supply agreements for commercial supply of PYRUKYND® with third-party manufacturers, we may be unable to establish similar long-term supply agreements with third-party manufacturers with respect to our other product candidates or to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:
41

Table of Contents    
reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance, quality assurance, environmental and safety and pharmacovigilance reporting;
the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party; and
the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us.
Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMPs, regulations or similar regulatory requirements on a global basis. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with currently applicable regulations, or regulations or specifications to which we become subject in the future, could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of product candidates or medicines, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our medicines and harm our business and results of operations.
In addition, we currently rely on foreign third-party manufacturers and/or CROs, including those in China, and will likely continue to rely on foreign third-party manufacturers and/or CROs in the future. Foreign third-party manufacturers and/or CROs may be subject to U.S. legislation, including sanctions, trade restrictions and other foreign regulatory requirements which could increase the cost or reduce the supply of material or services available to us, delay the procurement or supply of such material or services or have an adverse effect on our ability to secure significant commitments from governments to purchase our potential therapies. Moreover, in January 2024, the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the BIOSECURE Act (H.R. 7085) and the Senate advanced a substantially similar bill (S.3558), which legislation, if passed and enacted into law, would have the potential to restrict the ability of U.S. biopharmaceutical companies like us to purchase services or products from, or otherwise collaborate with, certain Chinese biotechnology companies “of concern,” without losing the ability to contract with, or otherwise receive funding from, the U.S. government. It is possible some of our contractual counterparties could be impacted by this legislation.
If either we or any third parties on which we rely are adversely impacted by restrictions resulting from the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the emergence of another public health epidemic, by rising global energy costs or energy shortages or rationing and/or the impacts of the Russia-Ukraine war, our supply chain may be disrupted, limiting our ability to manufacture our product candidates for our clinical trials and research and development operations and our product for commercialization.
Any performance failure on the part of our existing or future manufacturers could delay preclinical development, clinical development, marketing approval or our commercialization efforts. Due to the volatility of the supply networks globally, we have obtained regulatory approval for redundant supply of raw materials and active pharmaceutical ingredient for PYRUKYND®, and have an ongoing program to monitor supply, including establishing safety stocks. While we maintain a broad safety stock of drug product, we do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply for drug product. If any one of our current contract manufacturers cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace that manufacturer. Although we believe that there are several potential alternative manufacturers who could manufacture our product or our product candidates, we may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacement.
Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our product candidates or medicines may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any medicines that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.
We may depend on collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of our product candidates. If those collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of these product candidates.
We may seek collaborations for the development and commercialization of our product candidates with large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Collaborations are complex and time-consuming to negotiate and document. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. We may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. Collaborators may have rights that restrict us from entering into future agreements on certain terms with potential collaborators.
If we enter into any such arrangements with collaborators, we will likely have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or commercialization of our product candidates. Collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of our product candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborator’s strategic focus or available funding or
42

Table of Contents    
external factors such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities. Collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing, which may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidate. Collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation. Disputes may arise between the collaborators and us that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our medicines or product candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources. In addition, our ability to enter into arrangements with collaborators in specific regions, such as the Middle East, may be affected by localized geopolitical unrest or military conflict, such as the current armed conflict in Israel and the Gaza Strip.
Our ability to generate revenue from these arrangements will depend on our collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent or trade secret protection for our medicines and technology, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize medicines and technology similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our medicines and technology may be adversely affected.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our proprietary medicines and technology. We seek to protect our proprietary position by filing patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our novel technologies and medicines that are important to our business. We do not yet have issued patents for all our most advanced product candidates in all markets in which we intend to commercialize but we continue to actively pursue patent protection for our assets around the world.
The patent prosecution process is costly and time-consuming, and we may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify and/or file patent applications on every aspect of our research and development output that is or may be eligible for patent protection. Although we enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who may have access to patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract research organizations, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection. There is also the possibility that loss or theft of data or records may jeopardize the ability to seek patent protection or impede the progress or drafting of patent applications.
We have licensed patent rights, and in the future may license additional patent rights, from third parties. Such licenses may be accompanied by milestone and/or royalty payment obligations. These licensed patent rights may be valuable to our business, and we may not have the right to control the preparation, filing and prosecution of patent applications, or to maintain the patents, covering technology or medicines underlying such licenses. We cannot be certain that these patents and applications will be prosecuted and enforced in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business. If any such licensors fail to maintain such patents, or lose rights to those patents, the rights we have licensed may be reduced or eliminated and our right to develop and commercialize any of our products that are the subject of such licensed rights could be adversely affected. In addition to the foregoing, the risks associated with patent rights that we license from third parties also apply to patent rights we own.
The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions and has in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued that protect our technology or medicines or that effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and medicines. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection. The laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our owned or licensed patents or pending patent applications, or that we were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions.
Assuming the other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to make the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent. Beginning in March 2013, the United States transitioned to a first inventor to file system in which, assuming the
43

Table of Contents    
other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent. We may be subject to a third-party pre-issuance submission of prior art to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, or become involved in opposition, derivation, revocation, reexamination, post-grant and inter partes review or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or products and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize medicines without infringing third-party patent rights.
Even if our patent applications issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors or other third parties from competing with us or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Our competitors or other third parties may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner.
The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, and our patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. Such challenges may result in loss of the patent or in one or more patent claims being narrowed or invalidated, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and medicines. Given the significant amount of time required for the discovery, development, preclinical and clinical testing and regulatory review and approval of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our intellectual property may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. In such circumstances we would be relying primarily on regulatory or marketing exclusivity to exclude others from commercializing a generic version of our products.
We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.
Competitors may infringe our patents and other intellectual property rights. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.
Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we or our collaborators are infringing their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.
The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Our commercial success depends upon our ability and the ability of our collaborators to develop, manufacture, market and sell our product and product candidates and use our proprietary technologies without infringing the proprietary rights and intellectual property of third parties. We have in the past and may in the future become party to, or threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our medicines and technology, including opposition, derivation, revocation, reexamination, post-grant and inter partes review or interference proceedings before the USPTO or other patent offices around the world. We are not aware of any legal proceedings having been filed against us following the sale of our oncology business to Servier. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future. If we or one of our collaborators are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, we or they could be required to obtain a license from such third party to continue developing and marketing our medicines and technology. However, we or our collaborators may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we or our collaborators were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us. We or our collaborators could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing and commercializing the infringing technology or medicine. In addition, we or our collaborators could be found liable for monetary damages. A finding of infringement could prevent us or our collaborators from commercializing our product and product candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Claims that we or our collaborators have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business.
44

Table of Contents    

We may be subject to claims that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.
Many of our employees, consultants or advisors are currently or were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our organization.

Intellectual property litigation could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.
Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our confidential information related to our proprietary platforms and technology, our business and competitive position could be harmed.
In addition to seeking patents for some of our technology and medicines, we also rely on maintaining the confidentiality of unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, to maintain our competitive position. For example, we consider the confidential information and know-how related to our cellular metabolism technology platform to be our primary intellectual property assets in this space. Unpatented proprietary technical information and know-how can be difficult to protect.
We seek to protect this proprietary technical information and know-how, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract research organizations, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated proprietary information is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. If any of our proprietary technical information and know-how were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. Moreover, we anticipate that with respect to this platform, at least some of this technical information and know-how will, over time, be disseminated within the industry through independent development, the publication of journal articles describing the methodology, and the movement of personnel skilled in the art from academic to industry scientific positions.
Risks Related to Regulatory Approval of Our Product Candidates and Other Legal Compliance Matters
Even if we complete necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of some or all of our product candidates. If we or our collaborators are not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, we or they will not be able to commercialize, or will be delayed in commercializing, our product candidates, and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.
Our product candidates and the activities associated with their development and commercialization, including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, record keeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution, export and import, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by the EMA and comparable regulatory authorities in other countries.
45

Table of Contents    
Securing marketing approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to the various regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the product candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing regulatory approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authority. Our product candidates may not be effective, may be only moderately effective or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use.
In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit or prevent marketing approval of a product candidate. Any marketing approval we or our collaborators ultimately obtain may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved medicine not commercially viable.
The FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process. Accordingly, it is possible that the FDA or EMA may refuse to accept for substantive review any NDA, supplemental NDA or MAA that we submit for our product candidates, or may conclude after review of our data that our marketing application is insufficient to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates. If the FDA or EMA does not accept or approve our applications for any of our product candidates, the applicable regulator may require that we conduct additional clinical trials, preclinical studies or manufacturing validation studies and submit that data before reconsidering our applications. Depending on the extent of these or any other FDA- or EMA-required trials or studies, approval of any marketing applications that we submit may be delayed by several years, or may require us to expend more resources than we planned. It is also possible that additional trials or studies, if performed and completed, may not be considered sufficient by the FDA or EMA to approve any marketing applications. We may not be successful in obtaining FDA or EMA approval of our product candidates on a timely basis, or ever. We have limited experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party contract research organizations to assist us in this process, and failure to obtain marketing approval for our product candidates will prevent us from commercializing the product candidate in the applicable jurisdictions.
Further, the process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive, may take many years if additional clinical trials are required, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted product application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application.
Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may prolong the time necessary for regulatory submissions to be reviewed and/or new drugs to be approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown were to occur, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. For example, should the FDA determine that an inspection is necessary for approval of a regulatory submission and an inspection cannot be completed during the review cycle, and the FDA does not determine a remote interactive evaluation to be adequate, the FDA has stated that it generally intends to issue a complete response letter or defer action on the regulatory submission until an inspection can be completed.
Finally, our ability to develop and market new drug products may be threatened by the results of ongoing litigation challenging the FDA’s approval of another company’s drug. Specifically, in April 2023, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas invalidated the approval by the FDA of mifepristone, a drug product which was originally approved in 2000 and whose distribution is governed by various measures adopted under a REMS. In reaching that decision, the district court made a number of findings that may negatively impact the development, approval and distribution of new drug products in the United States.
The Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit declined to order the removal of mifepristone from the market, finding that a challenge to the FDA’s initial approval in 2000 is barred by the statute of limitations. But the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit did hold that plaintiffs were likely to prevail in their claim that changes allowing for expanded access of mifepristone that the FDA authorized in 2016 and 2021 were arbitrary and capricious. In December 2023, the Supreme Court announced that it will review the appeals court decision. Depending on the outcome of this litigation and the regulatory uncertainty it has engendered, our ability to develop new drug product candidates and to maintain approval of existing drug products and measures adopted under a REMS is at risk and our efforts to develop and market new drug products could be delayed, undermined or subject to protracted litigation.
If we or our collaborators experience delays in obtaining approval or if we or they fail to obtain approval of our product candidates, the commercial prospects for our product candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.
46

Table of Contents    
Failure to obtain marketing approval in foreign jurisdictions would prevent our medicines from being marketed in such jurisdictions and any of our medicines that are approved for marketing in such jurisdiction will be subject to risk associated with foreign operations.
In order to market and sell our medicines in the EU and many other foreign jurisdictions, we or our collaborators must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, a product must be approved for reimbursement before the product can be approved for sale in that country. We or our collaborators may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Moreover, approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. Although we have received marketing authorization for PYRUKYND® for the treatment of adults with PK deficiency in the EU and Great Britain, we may not be able to file for additional marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our medicines in any other foreign market.
Additionally, we could face heightened risks with respect to seeking marketing approval in the United Kingdom as a result of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU on December 31, 2020, commonly referred to as Brexit. Since the regulatory framework for pharmaceutical products in the United Kingdom covering the quality, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical products, clinical trials, marketing authorization, commercial sales, and distribution of pharmaceutical products is derived from EU directives and regulations, the consequences of Brexit and the impact on the future regulatory regime that applies to products and the approval of product candidates in the United Kingdom remains unclear. As of January 1, 2021, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, or the MHRA, became responsible for supervising medicines and medical devices in Great Britain, comprising England, Scotland and Wales under domestic law, whereas Northern Ireland will continue to be subject to EU rules under the Northern Ireland Protocol. The United Kingdom and the EU have however agreed to the Windsor Framework which fundamentally changes the existing system under the Northern Ireland Protocol, including with respect to the regulation of medicinal products in the United Kingdom. Once implemented, the changes introduced by the Windsor Framework will result in the MHRA being responsible for approving all medicinal products destined for the United Kingdom market (Great Britain and Northern Ireland), and the EMA will no longer have any role in approving medicinal products destined for Northern Ireland. Any delay in obtaining, or an inability to obtain, any marketing approvals, as a result of Brexit or otherwise, may prevent us from commercializing any product candidates in the United Kingdom and/or the EU and may force us to restrict or delay efforts to seek regulatory approval in the United Kingdom, which could significantly and materially harm our business.
In addition, foreign regulatory authorities may change their approval policies and new regulations may be enacted. For instance, the European Union pharmaceutical legislation is currently undergoing a complete review process, in the context of the Pharmaceutical Strategy for Europe initiative, launched by the European Commission in November 2020. The European Commission’s proposal for revision of several legislative instruments related to medicinal products (including potentially reducing the duration of regulatory data protection and revising the eligibility for expedited pathways) was published on April 26, 2023. The proposed revisions remain to be agreed and adopted by the European Parliament and European Council and the proposals may therefore be substantially revised before adoption, which is not anticipated before early 2026. The revisions may however have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry and our business in the long term.
We expect that we will be subject to additional risks in commercializing any of our product candidates that receive marketing approval outside the United States, including tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements; economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets; compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad; foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenue, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country; and workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States. In addition, we do not have experience commercializing products outside of the United States and such efforts may depend on our ability to find a suitable collaborator.
47

Table of Contents    
Fast track designation and/or priority review designation by the FDA or PRIME designation in the EU may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, nor does it assure approval of the product candidate by the FDA or the EMA.
We may seek fast track designation, priority review designation and/or PRIME designation for our product candidates.
If a product candidate is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and the product candidate demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this disease or condition, the drug sponsor may apply for FDA fast track designation.
Further, if the FDA determines that a product candidate offers major advances in treatment or provides a treatment where no adequate therapy exists, the FDA may designate the product candidate for priority review. A priority review designation means that the goal for the FDA to review an application is six months, rather than the standard review period of ten months. Receiving priority review from the FDA does not guarantee approval within the six-month review cycle or thereafter.
The FDA has broad discretion on whether to grant fast track designation and/or priority review designation to a product candidate, so even if we believe a particular product candidate is eligible for such designation or status, the FDA may decide not to grant it. Even if our product candidates receive fast track designation and/or priority review designation, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval, if at all, compared to conventional FDA procedures. The FDA may withdraw fast track designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.
In addition, in the EU, the PRIME designation program focuses on product candidates that target conditions for which there exists no satisfactory method of treatment in the EU or product candidates that may offer a major therapeutic advantage over existing treatments. The benefits of a PRIME designation include, among other things, the potential to qualify product for accelerated review, meaning reduction in the review time for an opinion on approvability to be issued earlier in the application process. PRIME designation enables a sponsor to request parallel EMA scientific advice and health technology assessment advice to facilitate timely market access. Even if our product candidates receive PRIME designation, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional EMA procedures and it does not assure or increase the likelihood of the EMA’s grant of a marketing authorization.
We, or any collaborators, may not be able to obtain orphan drug designation or orphan drug exclusivity for our drug candidates and, even if we do, that exclusivity may not prevent the FDA or the EMA from approving competing drugs.
Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and Europe, may designate drugs and biologics for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product as an orphan drug if it is a drug or biologic intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States.
Generally, if a product with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the EMA or the FDA from approving another marketing application for the same product for that time period. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and ten years in Europe. The European exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a product no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the product is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA or EMA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Moreover, even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve a different product for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later product is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care.
In addition, even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve a different product for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later product is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care.
The FDA and Congress may further reevaluate the Orphan Drug Act and its regulations and policies. This may be particularly true in light of a decision from the Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit in September 2021 finding that, for the purpose of determining the scope of exclusivity, the term “same disease or condition” means the designated “rare disease or condition” and could not be interpreted by the FDA to mean the “indication or use.” Although there have been legislative proposals to overrule this decision, they have not been enacted into law. On January 23, 2023, the FDA announced that, in matters beyond the scope of that court order, the FDA will continue to apply its existing regulations tying orphan-drug exclusivity to the uses or indications for which the orphan drug was approved. We do not know if, when, or how the FDA or Congress may change the orphan drug regulations and policies in the future, and it is uncertain how any changes might affect our business. Depending on what changes the FDA may make to its orphan drug regulations and policies, our business could be adversely impacted.
48

Table of Contents    
Any product or product candidate for which we or our collaborators obtain marketing approval could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market and we may be subject to substantial penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our medicines, when and if any of them are approved.
Any product or product candidate for which we or our collaborators obtain marketing approval, along with the manufacturing processes, post-approval clinical data, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such medicine, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, cGMP requirements relating to quality control and manufacturing, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, and requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and record keeping. Even if marketing approval of a product candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the medicine may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, or contain requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the medicine, including the requirement to implement a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy.
The FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice, or DOJ, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure that they are marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. The FDA and DOJ impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use and if we market our medicines for uses other than their respective approved indications, we may be subject to enforcement actions for off-label marketing. Violations of the FDCA and other statutes, including the False Claims Act, relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription drugs may lead to investigations and enforcement actions alleging violations of federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws, as well as state consumer protection laws, which violations may result in the imposition of significant administrative, civil and criminal penalties.
Our relationships with healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors are subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which, in the event of a violation, could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.
Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of PYRUKYND® and any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our future arrangements with healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute PYRUKYND® and any other medicines for which we obtain marketing approval. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations include the following:
the federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation or arranging of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid;
the federal False Claims Act imposes criminal and civil penalties, including through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, false or fraudulent claims for payment by a federal healthcare program or making a false statement or record material to payment of a false claim or avoiding, decreasing or concealing an obligation to pay money to the federal government, with potential liability including mandatory treble damages and significant per-claim penalties;
HIPAA imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and its implementing regulations, also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires applicable manufacturers of covered drugs to report payments and other transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals and other covered recipients; and
analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws and transparency statutes, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers.
Some state laws require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures. State and foreign laws also govern the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.
49

Table of Contents    
Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion of products from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found to be not in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government funded healthcare programs.
The provision of benefits or advantages to physicians to induce or encourage the prescription, recommendation, endorsement, purchase, supply, order or use of medicinal products is also prohibited in the EU. The provision of benefits or advantages to physicians is governed by the national anti-bribery laws of member states of the EU, or the EU Member States, such as the U.K. Bribery Act 2010. Infringement of these laws could result in substantial fines and imprisonment.
Payments made to physicians in certain EU Member States must be publicly disclosed. Moreover, agreements with physicians often must be the subject of prior notification and approval by the physician’s employer, his or her competent professional organization and/or the regulatory authorities of the individual EU Member States. These requirements are provided in the national laws, industry codes or professional codes of conduct, applicable in the EU Member States. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in reputational risk, public reprimands, administrative penalties, fines or imprisonment.
PYRUKYND® or any product candidate that we commercialize may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations and third-party reimbursement practices, which would harm our business.
We have built our commercial infrastructure to support the commercial launch of PYRUKYND® in adult PK deficiency in the United States. We are providing access to PYRUKYND® free of charge for eligible patients in the EU and Great Britain through a global managed access program, and we provide access to PYRUKYND® for adult patients with PK deficiency in other jurisdictions through the global managed access program on either a free of charge or for charge basis. The commercial success of PYRUKYND® or of any of our product candidates will depend substantially, both domestically and abroad, on the extent to which the costs of our product candidates will be paid by third-party payors, including government health administration authorities and private health coverage insurers. If coverage and reimbursement is not available, or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we, or any collaborators, may not be able to successfully commercialize PYRUKYND® or our product candidates. Even if coverage is provided, the approved reimbursement amount may not be high enough to allow us, or any future collaborators, to establish or maintain pricing sufficient to realize a sufficient return on our or their investments. In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors and coverage and reimbursement for products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.
There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved drugs. Marketing approvals, pricing and reimbursement for new drug products vary widely from country to country. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or product licensing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost effectiveness of our product candidates to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our ability to generate revenues and become profitable could be impaired.
As a result, we, or any collaborators, might obtain marketing approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, which may negatively impact the revenue we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability or the ability of any collaborators to recoup our or their investment in one or more product candidates, even if our product candidates obtain marketing approval.
Patients who are provided medical treatment for their conditions generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their treatment. Therefore, our ability, and the ability of any collaborators, to commercialize PYRUKYND® or any of our product candidates will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from third-party payors. Third-party payors decide which medications
50

Table of Contents    
they will cover and establish reimbursement levels. The healthcare industry is acutely focused on cost containment, both in the United States and elsewhere. Government authorities and other third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications, which could affect our ability or that of any collaborators to sell PYRUKYND® or our product candidates profitably. These payors may not view our products, if any, as cost-effective, and coverage and reimbursement may not be available to our customers, or those of any collaborators, or may not be sufficient to allow our products, if any, to be marketed on a competitive basis. Cost-control initiatives could cause us, or any collaborators, to decrease the price we, or they, might establish for products, which could result in lower than anticipated product revenue. If the prices for our products, if any, decrease or if governmental and other third-party payors do not provide coverage or adequate reimbursement, our prospects for revenue and profitability will suffer.
In addition, increasingly, third-party payors are requiring higher levels of evidence of the benefits and clinical outcomes of new technologies and are challenging the prices charged. We cannot be sure that coverage will be available for PYRUKYND® or any product candidate that we, or any collaborator, may commercialize and, if available, that the reimbursement rates will be adequate. Further, the net reimbursement for drug products may be subject to additional reductions if there are changes to laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. An inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate payment rates from both government-funded and private payors for PYRUKYND® or any of our product candidates for which we, or any collaborator, may obtain marketing approval could significantly harm our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize products and our overall financial condition.
Current and future healthcare reform legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us and any collaborators to obtain reimbursement and commercialize our drug candidates.
In the United States and foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability, or the ability of any collaborators, to profitably sell PYRUKYND® or any other product for which we, or they, obtain marketing approval. We expect that current laws, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we, or any collaborators, may receive for any approved products. If reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope, our business could be materially harmed.
In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act, or collectively, the ACA. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. This legislation resulted in aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, which will remain in effect for six months into fiscal year 2032. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding and otherwise affect the prices we may obtain for any of our product candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval or the frequency with which any such product candidate is prescribed or used.
Indeed, under current legislation, the actual reductions in Medicare payments may vary up to 4%. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, which was signed into law by President Biden in December 2022, made several changes to sequestration of the Medicare program. Section 1001 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act delays the 4% Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Act of 2010 sequester for two years, through the end of calendar year 2024. Triggered by enactment of the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, the 4% cut to the Medicare program would have taken effect in January 2023. The Consolidated Appropriations Act’s health care offset title includes Section 4163, which extends the 2% Budget Control Act of 2011 Medicare sequester for six months into fiscal year 2032 and lowers the payment reduction percentages in fiscal years 2030 and 2031.
Since enactment of the ACA, there have been, and continue to be, numerous legal challenges and Congressional actions to repeal and replace provisions of the law. For example, in 2017, Congress repealed the “individual mandate.” The repeal of this provision, which requires most Americans to carry a minimal level of health insurance, became effective in 2019. On November 10, 2020, the Supreme Court heard oral arguments as to whether the individual mandate portion of the ACA is an essential and inseverable feature of the ACA, and therefore because the mandate was repealed as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the remaining provisions of the ACA are invalid as well. On February 10, 2021, the Biden Administration withdrew the federal government’s support for overturning the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the Supreme Court struck down the lower court rulings, finding that the plaintiffs did not have standing to challenge the ACA’s minimum essential coverage provision at issue in the case.
The Trump Administration also took executive actions to undermine or delay implementation of the ACA, including directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the ACA to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the
51

Table of Contents    
implementation of any provision of the ACA that would impose a fiscal or regulatory burden on states, individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. On January 28, 2021, however, President Biden revoked these orders and issued a new executive order which directs federal agencies to reconsider rules and other policies that limit Americans’ access to health care, and consider actions that will protect and strengthen that access. This Executive Order also directs the HHS to create a special enrollment period for the Health Insurance Marketplace in response to the recent COVID-19 pandemic. We cannot predict how federal agencies will respond to such executive orders.
The prices of prescription pharmaceuticals in the United States and foreign jurisdictions are subject to considerable legislative and executive actions and could impact the prices we obtain for our drug products, if and when approved, and/or the sustainability of those prices.
The prices of prescription pharmaceuticals have also been the subject of considerable discussion in the United States.
To date, there have been several recent U.S. congressional inquiries, as well as proposed and enacted state and federal legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to pharmaceutical pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the costs of drugs under Medicare and Medicaid. To those ends, President Trump issued several executive orders intended to lower the costs of prescription products. Certain provisions of these orders have been reflected in promulgated regulations, including an interim final rule implementing a most favored nation model for prices, which would tie Medicare Part B payments for certain physician-administered pharmaceuticals to the lowest price paid in other economically advanced countries. Such final rule has been subject to a nationwide preliminary injunction, and, on December 29, 2021, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, issued a final rule to rescind it. With the issuance of this rule, CMS stated it will explore all options to incorporate value into payments for Medicare Part B drugs and improve beneficiaries’ access to evidence-based care.
In addition, in October 2020, the HHS and the FDA published a final rule allowing states and other entities to develop a Section 804 Importation Program, or SIP, to import certain prescription drugs from Canada into the United States. That regulation was challenged in a lawsuit by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, or PhRMA, but the case was dismissed by a federal district court in February 2023 after the court found that PhRMA did not have standing to sue HHS. Nine states (Colorado, Florida, Maine, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Texas, Vermont and Wisconsin) have passed laws allowing for the importation of drugs from Canada. Certain of these states have submitted Section 804 Importation Program proposals and are awaiting FDA approval. On January 5, 2024, the FDA approved Florida’s plan for Canadian drug importation. Further, on November 20, 2020, HHS finalized a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The final rule would eliminate the current safe harbor for Medicare drug rebates and create new safe harbors for beneficiary point-of-sale discounts and pharmacy benefit manager service fees. It originally was set to go into effect on January 1, 2022, but with passage of the IRA, has been delayed by Congress to January 1, 2032.